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Calculating the number of bricks

Calculating the number of bricks
The number of bricks depends on the used format.
By means of a table
Here we give a table with the number of bricks and amount of mortar per m² measured for a half brick wall (1 stone wall = x2) in half stone bond, this is masonry that exclusively consists of stretchers, and with a joint width of 10 mm. Included is a chopping/breaking loss of brick of 3% and a prefab-mortar loss of 3%. With a traditional mortar you can count on 10% of mortar loss. (Data from Royal Assembly of Dutch Brick Factories and from Jozef Dockx)

Other uses

Other uses of the bread oven
In addition to baking bread, the heat of the oven was also put to other uses:
tijdens of na het bakken van het brood werd er ook plaats voorzien voor het bakken van vlaaien, peperkoek, appelbroodjes of andere lekkernijen voor de kinderen.
men droogde in de nog warme oven peren, appels en pruimen. Om te drogen zijn de harde perensoorten goed zoals trichter- of hereperen, langeloren, korsenijsperen, spineelperen, dikstaartperen. De peren worden in verscheidene keren (4 à 5 maal) gedroogd. Daarna zien ze er zwart en vol rimpels uit. Bakpruimen werden als laatste in de oven gedroogd, soms op bruin papier. Om barsten tegen te gaan mocht de oven niet warmer dan 60° C zijn.
op het ovengewelf werd het zaaigoed voor de moestuin gelegd. In de oven werden kleine veldvruchten en zaden gedroogd: erwten, bonen, klaverbollen, koolzaad, raapzaad, enz.
in de bijna afgekoelde oven kon men pluimen drogen...

Calculating the amount of concrete

Calculating the amount of concrete
Foundation
In order to know the amount of concrete, you will first need to calculate the volume of the foundation slots.
You multiply:
the length of the outer foundation wall
the depth of the outer foundation wall
the height of the foundation
Do the same for the inner foundation wall and subtract both outcomes.
Multiply the needed volume by the number of kg of components, knowing that you will need for approx. 1 m³ of concrete with concrete strength of 250 kg/m³ mortar and a proportion 1 : 3 : 4 you will need the following:
Portland cement ( CEM I and class 32,5): approx. 250 kg
Rhine sand 0/2: approx. 750 kg
gravel (aggregate size 4/14): approx. 1000 kg
Example (by means of building plan):
...

Calculating the amount of mortar

Calculating the amount of mortar
This calculation depends on the measurements of the chosen brick. Estimate the necessary number of litres/m² of mortar by means of this table.
Calculate the surface (see calculating the number of bricks) and multiply this by the number of litres/m² to get the volume of mortar.
For a bastard mortar with approx. 1 m³ of sand and a proportion 1 : 1 : 6 you will need the following:
Portland cement (CEM I and class 42,5): approx. 200 kg
Chaffed lime: approx. 100 kg
Rhine sand 0/2: approx. 1600 kg of 1m³
For lime mortar with approx. 1 m³ of sand and a proportion 2 : 1 : 1 you will need the following:
sandy clay: approx. 3200 kg
Rhine sand 0/2: approx. 1600 kg of 1 m³
chaffed lime: approx. 600 kg
Example (by means of building plan):
number of litres mortar/m² ½ brick wall for Module 50 = 32 litres or 50 kg
number of litres mortar/ m² 1 brick wall for Module 50= 64 litres or 100 kg
total surface ½ brick thick = 2,576 m²
total surface 1 brick thick= 5,422 m²
total surface...

Calculating te amount of loam for insulation

Calculating the amount of loam for isolation
By calculating the volume (of hollow half dome) we can calculate the necessary number of litres (volume) of loam mortar. The volume of the loam layer is calculated by subtracting the volume from the half dome with the volume of the hollow part. This becomes clear when using the following formula: Volume = (D³ - d³) x (3,1416 / 12), with D = outer diameter and d = inner diameter.
If you have calculated the volume in cm³ then you have to divide the result by 1000 to get the volume in litres. Multiply the necessary volume by the number of litre components knowing that you need for approx. 1 m³ (1000 litres) loam mortar and a proportion 3 : 1/2 : 1 : 1 :
loam soil: approx. 860 litres
chaffed lime: approx. 140 litres
Rhine sand: approx. 285 litres
Chopped straw: approx. 285 litres
(Horse urine: approx. 14 litres)
Example (by means of...

Baking

Baking the bread
The dough balls are put in the oven in rows using a baker’s peel. They cannot be put right up against one another as the dough will still expand. They must not touch the walls either as they will burn. The bread has to be put in quickly, as the first ones will start baking while the others are put in. Furthermore, the baker has to act quickly to prevent the oven to cool down. A little flour on the baker’s peel stops the dough balls sticking to it.
When the bread is in the oven, the oven door is closed to keep in the heat and also the steam. While baking, some of the water in the dough evaporates. This vapour “settles” on the bread as the oven cools, giving the bread a soft crust.
The baking time depends on the weight of the bread and the type of grain used:
white bread: around one hour
rye bread, wholemeal bread: 1.5 to 2 hours
flan: around a quarter of an hour (= the last quarter...

Working with axes

Loam covering

Covering the vault with loamThis text can only be consulted in
Dutch.

Building a bread oven

Building a bread oven
There are many different ways to build a bread oven. Firstly, you can use various materials that each mason uses in a different way according to his preferences. Then there is the clients wishlist to be taken into account. Lastly, there are no detailed instructions to be found in manuals and as far as shape and building styles go, there are no rules.
The MOT created this manual to help out people who want to build their own bread oven. Although our method serves as a guideline, we offer you a choice between different solutions whenever possible. You'll find a list of materials together with the quantities that you will need to build this type of oven. In terms of construction, we prefer to follow the most authentic building method, unless we think there are better and easier solutions at hand. You can find more information in the chapter additional information.
We collected the information for this manual using books (see bibliography) and records of oven...

Oven vault

Building the oven vault This text can only be consulted in
Dutch.