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??? What are these question marks doing here? These represent tools which we know by a Dutch or French term, but for which we couldn't find a proper English term. Suggestions are always welcome!

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Setting block
Setting block (1) of a diamond setter, who prepares the gem for the diamond cutter. He places the heated solder caps in it to attach the diamond each time in a suitable position. Derived of the Dutch word 'verstelblok'. The equivalent English name of this tool is unknown.
Sewing gauge (expandable)
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Shackle key
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Shaving brush
Brush to apply shaving soap before shaving with a razor knife or safety razor. A shaving brush consists of a bundle of neck hair from the badger (1), pig bristles (formerly also horsehair), silk or nylon glued into a handle made of horn or bone, wood, metal, bakelite or plastic. The working part is conical or spherical. The shaving brush is first wetted with hot water and rubbed over the jar of solid shaving soap with circular movements. When using a shaving stick, it is rubbed over the beard to be shaved and brought to a light foamy layer with the wet shaving brush. Shaving cream or gel are sprayed onto the wet shaving brush. The brush is held in such a way that you grab the base of the hair with your fingers. The shaving cream is applied to the beard hair with back and forth movements or with pumping and twisting movements (2). [MOT] (1) The soft badger hairs have a high absorption capacity. (2) DE BROUWER & VAN LIEROP: 96-97.
Sheaf tying wood
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Before threshing, the farmer cuts loose the twine or straw that binds the sheaves with the sheaf-knife. The blade usually consists of a piece of a scythe blade. It is therefore often slightly curved with a broad back, ending in a point. The length of the blade varies from 12 to 20 cm and is inserted into a straight handle (approx. 10-20 cm). See also the thatching knife and the bale tie cutter. [MOT]
Shedding blade
The shedding blade consists of a strip of flexible metal - sometimes made of plastic - (approx. 50 cm by 4 cm), with a handle at both ends (1). It serves to wipe off moisture from heavily sweaty horses.See also the sweat scraper. [MOT](1) A discarded scythe blade was often used for this (e.g. ''Nouveau dictionnaire universel des arts et métiers'': s.v. couteau).
Sheep shears
Shears (approx. 30 cm long) which consist of one piece of hardened steel bent into a U shape, or two to three pieces of steel that are riveted. The triangular blades rub together when the shears are squeezed or left open. Sheep shears are used to cut sheep short and also for the further processing of wool (see also dog's and sheep trimmers). Sheep shears can also be used to cut grass borders (see also grass shears). See also the Japanese model of the embroiderie scissors. [MOT]
Sheet metal bending pliers
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Ship maul hammer
The ship maul hammer is used to drive in and out heavy nails, bolts and stud nails and is mainly used by the shipwright. It is a heavy metal pointed hammer on a long handle. The point is straight and has the shape of a truncated cone. The tool is struck with a hammer or club hammer. See also the hand punch. [MOT]
Shoe knife
The shoe knife is a full metal blade, approx. 15-25 cm long, which is used by the shoemaker to bevel the edges of leather and trim the edges of the sole. The cut is straight and is oblique in the plane of the blade.The blade is often wider towards the cutting end. It can also be concave lengthwise; in this way one avoids damaging the shoe when the edges of the sole are cut. Often the handle is wrapped in thin leather (1). Sometimes the knife itself is made from, for example, a metal strip from a packaging (eg MOT V 84.0056). There are also models with a wooden handle (eg MOT V 88.1549).This knife is used by other leather workers in addition to the shoemaker. For example, the bookbinder uses the knife to thin out the edges of the leather before they are folded over the cover. The basket maker sometimes uses a shoemaker's knife instead of a picking knife (basket maker). [MOT](1) SALAMAN 1986: 141.
Shoe pincers
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Shoe rasp
The shoe rasp is a rectangular rasp (approx. 2 cm wide; 20 cm long) without a handle, the two halves of which grate in opposite directions. The shoemaker uses this rasp to smooth and finish the soles, sole edges and heels. The short sides are usually rounded; sometimes one short side is straight. There are also models with one side grooved as a file. See also peg rasp. Can be distinguished from the horse rasp. [MOT]
Shoe shine brush
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Shoe stretcher for bunions
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Elongated (approx. 8-25 cm), rounded, slightly concave piece of plastic, metal or horn that is held against the inside of a shoe while it is being put on. Because the hollow takes the shape of the heel, it slides easily into the shoe along it without pushing the back flat. Sometimes the shoehorn is provided with a button hook at the other end. [MOT]
Shoeing hammer
The hoof hammer is a hammer (300-600 gr) with a round, flat face and split pin that closely resembles the claw hammer (carpenter) but can still be distinguished from it because its claw is usually shorter and more curved. The farrier uses this hammer to nail the horseshoe - when it fits perfectly on the hoof after several heatings and hammerings. The nails should be hammered outwards so as not to hurt the flesh of the foot. The claws are used to rivet the nails that protrude beyond the hoof. [MOT]
Shoemaker's hammer
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Shoemakers's spindle
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Shotgun shell crimper
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Shotshell trimmer
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Shoulder knife
The shoulder knife is a manual tool used by the marquetry worker to cut veneer (1). It has a blade (approx. 6 cm) with a straight or curved edge. The end of the long wooden handle (approx. 57 cm) is slightly curved and rests on the shoulder of the user. This way he has more control over the knife and can put more pressure.It is also sometimes used as a chip carving knife (2).See also the cutting gauge. [MOT](1) In the 18th century, the cutting gauge was preferred over the shoulder knife. See ROUBO: 847.(2) From DICK catalog: 53.
Shoulder stick
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Broad, slightly concave, straight or pointed shovel. It is made of sheet steel. Typically the short handle ends in a D handle. The ballast shovel serves to move sand, gravel, chippings, coal (see charging shovel) and the like. See also the masonry shovel. [MOT]
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Hand tool with a crescent-shaped or slightly curved blade (approx. 20-60 cm), the edge of which is sometimes provided with small teeth - oblique to the handle - and attached to a short handle (approx. 10-15 cm). The sickle, which weighs about 200-500 gr, is used to harvest (winter) grain, grass, beans, etc. With one hand you hold the stems, with the other - in which you keep the sickle - you cut them off. In general, therefore, cutting is done by friction. However, chopping is also done (1). Exceptionally, a toothed sickle was used as a knife to cut a clod of butter in all directions to get the hairs, straws and the like out (2). The Japanese sickle has an elongated, relatively short (approx. 15-20 cm) blade that is attached at right angles to an approx. 30-40 cm long stem. The edge is slightly concave; the back is convex and relatively wide (approx. 2-6 mm). That sickle weighs about 150 g and is used to cut grass and to harvest rice; a heavier version (approx. 500 g), for pruning shrubs...
Side cutting wire cutter
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Side rabbet plane
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Side round and side hollow plane
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Sideways plane
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Sideways rebate plane
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Sink brush
Brush with stiff bristles or steel wire, often fan-shaped, and a straight or button-shaped handle. It is used to scrub the sink and dirty pots and pans. Modern dish brushes are made of plastic. See also the pan scrubber. [MOT]
Siphon tongs
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Skew chisel
Chisel with one bevel at an angle to the axis of the tool and not perpendicular as with the regular chisel. The skew chisel makes it easy to work in the corners. Especially the joiner and wood engraver use this relatively rare chisel. The tool can be distinguished from the hook and side tool which has two bevels. [MOT]
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Skimming scoop
Use a skimming scoop to wipe off the excess foam from a tapped pint. It is a flat, elongated (approx. 20-25 cm), light (approx. 50 gr), full metal plate with a narrower handle. The skimming scoop is used to stroke the edge of the glass in order to obtain a smooth, level foam layer. [MOT]
Skinning knife
The skinning knife has a sturdy, saber-shaped blade attached to a wooden or plastic handle. The cut is rounded upwards, which makes the cutting surface larger. With the skinning knife it is possible to separate the skin in one piece from the meat. The skin is pulled away from the flesh and the knife is drawn over and over again along the thin membrane between flesh and skin. [MOT]
Hand tool with a wide rectangular blade (6 to 10 cm) with a very sharp, straight cut and a firm handle. With the skiver, the leather is processed before it is cut to size. The leather worker places the blade almost horizontally on the leather when planing and pushes the skiver forward. In this way, it scrapes away unevenness on the surface of the leather and the leather becomes evenly smooth and shiny. To prevent the skiving knife from slipping, the part of the leather to be processed is dusted with flour. In this way, the edge of the tool grips well on the leather. The skiver is stored in a sturdy leather or cardboard cover.The tool can be distinguished from the lace cutting knife. [MOT]
Slate ripper
The slate ripper is used to pull out the nails that hold the slates to a roof. It is a metal sheet of approx. 30-50 by 4-5 cm with lateral backward notches, one end of which is bent perpendicularly. A metal handle is forged at that end that ends in a hook. The slater pushes the sheet under the broken slate, grabs the nail into a notch and pulls the tool towards him; sometimes he hits the right-angled part with his hammer. [MOT]
Slate splitting chisel
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Slater's stake
The slater's stake is a tool for cutting slates to size. It has a sharp straight edge at the top and a sharp point at the bottom that can be hammered into the roof boarding. The slate is placed on the sharp top and cut off with the roofer's hammer. There are different models: round, triangular, rectangular, straight, curved. The straight models are made entirely of metal and have no handle, while the triangular models have a wooden handle. [MOT]
Slaugther hammer
Heavy hammer to stun cattle to be slaughtered, and then kill them with the neck cut. The stunning can be done with a slaughter mask, a shooting device or this slaugther hammer (1). It can be a wooden hammer (approx. 5-6 kg) with a long handle (see sledgehammer). The working part can also be made of metal and resemble a stone hammer. Or a hammer with a metal head that has a rod-shaped end on one side, which can be used to punch through the skull to crush the brain. Another model consists of a hollowed-out pin and a hook at the other end. The hook would serve to pull the pin out of the skull when it gets stuck. See also the punch. [MOT] (1) Banned since 1920 (by Royal Decree of 5 June) in the Netherlands. In France since 1964.
The sledgehammer is a heavy (up to 5 kg) wooden hammer with a long handle (70-100 cm) for driving posts into the ground, splitting wood, driving a thick peg into a hole, tamping soil (1), etc. The sledgehammer can be made of a rough piece of wood or be fitted with a metal strap. It is made from a knotty piece if possible. See also the slaugther hammer. [MOT] (1) Eg. DE MAS: 382. See also the soil tamper
The sledgehammer is a heavy hammer (between 2 and 12 kg) with wedge-shaped peen, which in some cases lies in the same plane as the handle. The handle is long (approx. 60 to 100 cm) so that it can be gripped with both hands to hit with great force. The sledgehammer is used by the blacksmith for heavy forging work; many other professions use it too, such as the quarry worker. When the blacksmith works with one or more helpers, he uses a forging hammer to indicate where to strike. The helpers then each handle a sledgehammer to do the actual forging work. [MOT]
A sleeker has a rectangular (approx. 10-15 cm long) blade of stone - usually slate - metal or glass (1), one long side of which protrudes into a wooden handle that must be gripped with two hands. The tanner uses the sleeker to stretch, smooth, polish and push the moisture out of the leather. [MOT](1) See SALAMAN 1986: 313.
Sleeker (moulding)
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Sloyd knife
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Small garden hoe
Hand tool that resembles a garden hoe, but whose thin, sharp blade is usually not symmetrical and the swan-neck shaft and short (approx. 15 cm) wooden handle - is located on the left or right part of the working part . There are also straight models (V Dv 0851). With the small garden hoe, the roots of the weeds are cut just below the surface of the earth, while pulling. The tool is also used in agriculture for hand weeding and beets thinning. See also the scuffle hoe. [MOT]
Smith's tongs
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