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??? What are these question marks doing here? These represent tools which we know by a Dutch or French term, but for which we couldn't find a proper English term. Suggestions are always welcome!

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Hand bellows
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hand brush
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hand can seamer
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hand cultivator
Garden tool consisting of a usually 130-150 cm long (1) wooden handle with three to five - but always in an odd number - curved iron teeth for opening and turning the soil. The working part (approx. 10 to 25 cm wide) can be fixed or exchangeable. In the latter case, you can choose the number of teeth. The tips of the teeth are oval or triangular flattened. In contrast to the garden hoe, with the hand cultivator the solid underlying soil, with the sharp flat points and by its pulling movement, is slightly raised and opened up. The middle tines of a hand cultivator are slightly shorter so that the soil clod can be crumbled. To be distinguished from the grubber, which is narrower and mainly serves to break the ground superficially. See also the manual towed hand cultivator and hand wheel hoe. [MOT]
Hand drill
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hand harrow
The hand harrow is a small harrow that is pulled by one worker to loosen, crumble and flatten the top layer of digged or plowed soil. It is also used to work fertilizers and seeds into the soil. The hand harrow consists of a wooden or iron, usually triangular, frame in which wooden or iron round, square or diamond-shaped teeth (approx. 12-16 cm) protrude at an angle. Sometimes the distance between the teeth is adjustable (1). Depending on the slope and the direction of pull, the tines penetrate 1 to 7 cm deep into the soil. The pull rope is attached to one corner of the frame. It is pulled by means of a cross stick or a shoulder strap (2). See also soil rake, rotary tiller (hand) and hoe with rake. [MOT] (1) Eg. Manufrance: 697. (2) Eg. Manufrance: 697.
Hand hook
Hand tool consisting of a square (approx. 1 cm), curved blade (approx. 6-8 cm long) in cross-section, ending in a pointed tip. It is attached at right angles to a relatively long (approx. 25-35 cm) wooden handle, which widens at the end. It is used for weeding between plants. See also the weeding fork and moss scraper. [MOT]
Hand pincers
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hand punch
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hand ratchet brace
This hand ratchet brace works on the same principle as the common brace but has a lever instead of a U-shaped bracket. This lever works according to a ratchet mechanism and can be moved with back and forth strokes. Where there is no room for the normal brace, this type can be used. See also the engineer's ratchet brace for metal. [MOT]
Hand ridger
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hand seed drill
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hand vice
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hand wheel hoe
In crops growing in rows, the roots of weeds are cut with the hand wheel hoe; they are sometimes also used to break the crust so that a better air circulation is created and to counteract the capillary effect - and thus the drying out. The hand wheel hoe usually consists of two metal wheels (diam. Approx. 35 cm), each with a rod on the axle that keeps a metal plate, just behind the wheel, at the correct height. Both trapezoidal plates, connected by a bracket, are provided with 2-3 slots into which the oblique knives or hoes can be screwed to the desired width. The whole is pushed in front of you by means of two wooden arms (approx. 130 cm). There are also hand wheel hoes with one wheel with which you can hoe between two rows of plants, as opposed to the model with two wheels, which works on both sides of one row of plants. Nowadays there is a model with a rubber wheel (approx. Diam. 25-60 cm) where the hoes can be replaced by the blade of a hand ridger or hand cultivator (1). [MOT] (1)...
After the plants and grass from the ditch side have been mowed, the (small) ditches are manually cleared of sludge and dirt that impedes the water flow. The tool also serves to dredge ponds and other water features. The cleaning of the ditches is done at low tide, after a period of drought. One starts at the lowest point and against the current. More technical information on the dutch version of this tool page. See also the drag-net. [MOT]
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Handsaw for aerated concrete
Cellular, foam or aerated concrete is a concrete product with gas bubbles in it, making the material light, strong and easy to work with with the aerated concrete handsaw and with the stonemason's French drag. The aerated concrete handsaw has a thick (approx. 1.5 mm) tapered blade (approx. 50-70 cm). The large carbide (widia) teeth (30-40) are angled forward, so they saw when pushing the tool. See also the handsaw. [MOT]
Wooden lever (1.5 to 2 meters long) clad with metal fittings at the bottom, to lift heavy loads to a small height. Railroad workers use them to separate railroad tracks. Quarry workers such as the stonecutter use a handspike to place stone blocks on rollers. This tool can be distinguished from the crow bar and the ripping chisel. [MOT]
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hat brush
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hay fork / bundle fork
The hay fork is a fork with 2 to 3 - sometimes four - round or square, pointed, slightly curved, iron or steel tines (approx. 15-30 cm; spacing: approx. 7-20 cm), which have a straight wooden handle of varying length (approx. 100-300 cm). Sometimes it is also a monoxil fork-shaped branch (1). The farmer prefers a steel hay fork with two tines, to put the sheaves on the cart at harvest time or to stick it from the cart in the attic. The one with three teeth or the wooden bundle fork is often used to turn the hay (see also the hay rake). There is also a double model with a row of 3 tines at the bottom and a row of 2 tines at the top to collect the hay into bales. [MOT] (1) Eg. ROBERT: 8-20.
Hay hook
Hand tool used by the farmer to move bales of straw. It is a hook-shaped iron with a ring as a handle. Distinguishable from the cotton hook which is lighter and usually shorter. [MOT]
Hay knife
The hay knife has a 50 to 100 cm long blade with cut, which can be serrated; when teeth are present, it is called a hay saw. Both the knife and the saw serve to cut compressed hay, but also manure or silage forage, into pieces with a vertical movement. [MOT]
Hay rake
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hay spade
With a hay spade (1) you can cut off strongly compressed hay (see also hay knife). Afterwards it can be processed further with the hay fork. The hay spade is to be distinguished from the flauchter spade. [MOT] (1) proper name unknown.
Hay thief
The hay thief is used to pull a tuft of hay from the interior of a haystack or the hayloft. That sample can then be examined for condition and quality. After all, it is important to check whether the hay inside is dry, both for the nutritional value and for safety (self-ignition). The hay thief usually consists (1) of an iron rod (approx. 30 cm) ending in a point and fitted with a barb with a slightly curved point at approx. 5 cm from the end (2). The straight wooden stem measures approx. 80 cm. Sometimes the tool is made entirely of iron and the rod ends in an eye (3). [MOT] (1) According to DAVID 1973: 25 there are also completely wooden hay hooks. (2) SELLENS: 233 states that a hay thief can count two or more hooks. (3) Eg. DEVLIEGHER: 82.
Head knife
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hedge shears
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hinge chisel
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Agricultural and horticultural tool with a rectangular, semicircular, triangular or heart-shaped blade that lies diagonally opposite the wooden straight handle. The angle between blade and stem varies from 30 ° to 80 °. The blade can be covered with wood or iron. Usually the stem is half long (approx. 100-120 cm) and the hoe is used standing; however, there are also hoes with a shorter handle (approx. 50-60 cm) that require you to bend down or get on your knees (1). Dimensions and weight vary greatly and are adapted to the destination. For example, chopping is used to work the soil, to ridge potatoes (see also hand ridger), to harvest potatoes (see also potato lifting fork and potato harvester), plant trees, dig trenches, etc. Osiers and meadow farmers deepen and widen the trenches after each harvest (see this osier worker's tool) with a hoe. The handle (approx. 1 to 2 m) and blade are connected here by means of a D-shaped ring, a spring and a bolt. The cut is slightly curved. In the...
Hog ring pliers
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hollow auger
This text can only be consulted in Dutch. [MOT]
Honey dipper
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Honey strainer
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hoof cleaning knife
Hand tool that the blacksmith uses to trim horses' hooves. It usually has a slightly curved blade that is bent at the end and that cuts its entire length. (Compare with the beam scribe, the timber scribe, the cooper's timber scribe and the clog maker's timber scribe). That blade sticks in a wooden handle that is often bent upwards. Excess horn is cut away with the knife. With the bent end - which also cuts - impurities on the inside of the hoof can be removed. There are models for both left and right-handed users (1). See also the horseman's folding knife. [MOT] (1) Eg. Encyclopédie 1740-80, volume 13: s.v. Marechal ferrant.
Hoof nipper
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hoof tester
Pliers with which the farrier examines sick, painful hooves. Pain can arise in the hoof because changes in shape of the horny parts exert a pressure on the parts located therein and because internal parts of the hoof are swollen and therefore exert direct pressure on the nerves of the hoof.The hoof tester is a fairly large pair of tongs (approx. 30-40 cm long) with a jaw that can open wide so that the hoof can between them. The jaws are rectangular or round in cross section and have studs on the end. The different parts of the hoof are pinched with the forceps; Based on the reaction of the horse, one can determine the painful place. [MOT]
The hoofpick is an iron or plastic hook (approx. 15 cm long) that removes dirt from the hooves of a horse. The hand tool is often combined with a stud tap or a brush, sometimes whit a ring spanner. It is often part of the horseman's folding knife. [MOT]
Hook (butcher)
Hand tool (1) for hanging or removing objects. The butcher uses it for bacon, sausages and the like, the steamer for clothes, the shopkeeper for light and relatively little sold goods. The butcher's hook consists of an upwardly bent hook (approx. 5 cm) with a socket in which a long stem (approx. 120-250 cm) protrudes. Some models have several hooks. See also the boathook. [MOT] (1) Proper name unknown.
Hook and side tool
This hook and side tool is one of the most commonly used chisels of the turner and serves to smooth a piece on the lathe. [MOT]
Hook spanner
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hook tool
This hook tool is a metal rod (approx. 20-30 cm) with one end protruding into a handle, the other bent at right angles. That end is beveled. Sometimes the rod is T-shaped so that there are two cuts. The woodturner uses the hand tool on the lathe to hollow out a piece of wood sideways. [MOT]
Hoop hook
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hoop notching knife
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hooping windlass
This text can only be consulted in Dutch <>
Hop reaping hook
The proper name of this hop reaping hook is yet unknown.For more technical information about this tool, see the dutch version of this file. [MOT]