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??? What are these question marks doing here? These represent tools which we know by a Dutch or French term, but for which we couldn't find a proper English term. Suggestions for a name are always welcome!

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Paper hanger's knife
Knife with a long (approx. 30 cm), spatula-shaped blade with a rectangular cut in section, attached to a straight handle. It is used to strip wallpaper glued in along the edge of the pasting table from the selvedge. For this purpose, a thin metal strip was applied to the long side of the table. See also the wallpaper knife and the paper hanger's casing knife. [MOT]
Nose twitch
The nose twitch consists of a wooden stick - sometimes made of plastic - of about 50 cm with a hole at one end through which a loop of rope (exceptionally a chain) protrudes. The tool is used as a means of coercion to divert the attention of a horse during disturbing (eg eye care) or painful procedures and to induce a calming and sedative effect (cf. humane twitch). With the left hand, the loop is brought over the upper lip of the animal, with the right, the loop is tightened. The same implement is used on cattle, but on an ear (1). [MOT] (1) BERTHELON: 13.
Nail extractor
Nail puller is a general term for different levers and pliers for pulling out nails. The heavy versions are used by the shipwright, the lighter ones mainly to open boxes. The lever can be compared to the crowbar. For the same purpose the pincers or claw hammer are used by the carpenter. [MOT]
Nut pliers
Nuts can be tightened or loosened with nut pliers. The jaws are adapted to the shape of the nut. They grab the nut on four of the six faces. Unlike wrenches, the jaws don't move parallel. Sometimes they are ribbed on the inside for a better grip and the opening can be fixed with a set screw. The pliers cannot then be closed further than the screw allows, so that excessive pressure cannot be exerted on the side surfaces of the nut and thereby damage them. See also combination pliers. [MOT]
Pair of fire tongs
Fire tongs can be used to move burning pieces of wood. It is quite long, so that the hands are kept at a sufficient distance from the fire and the burning pieces of wood. The fire tongs are often part of a fireplace set, which can also contain an ash shovel, a fork and a brush. The fire tongs are very different from charcoal tongs, which are lighter and often shorter. It is therefore only intended to take a coal from the fireplace and light the pipe with it. See also the clinker tongs. [MOT]
Ore pick
The ore pick (1) is a hand tool used by dockworkers when unloading a ship's hold or moving bulk cargo such as ores. Compared to various picks, the metal is remarkably long (approx. 60-95 cm) in relation to the wooden handle (approx. 65 cm), which is almost at right angles connected in an eye. The pick narrows to a point, which is hammered into the ore to break it free for further scooping. [MOT] (1) The proper name in English is yet unknown. The tool was certainly used by dockers in the port of Antwerp (EECKELAERT: 417).
Nutmeg grater
Usually semicircular, but also sometimes completely round elongated metal grater of sheet iron with which nutmegs can be finely grated. These graters have a separate place where the nuts can be stored, usually at the top and closed with a lid. The grater can also be placed in a container in which both the nuts can be stored and in which the finely grated nutmeg can be collected. See also nutmeg mill. [MOT]
Nail tongs
Toenails can easily be cut with nail tongs. As with the pocket nail-clippers, the jaws are sharp. The legs are crossed and sometimes a spring on one of the legs ensures that the tongs open automatically. [MOT]
The penknife originally served to cut the tip of a quill pen and to scrape away ink stains from parchment or paper, like an eraser knife. It has a narrow, sharp blade measuring between 2.5 cm and 4.5 cm in length. The penknife is now usually a cutting knife, exceptionally with a replaceable blade, which is used for all kinds of purposes, including as a nail knife. A light (approx. 10 g) model, from the Christy Company, contains a blade that can be slid into the handle in four positions to determine the length of the blade. In addition to the large blade, many pocket knives also have a small sharp blade that is used as a pen knife. Not to be confused with the scalpel. [MOT]
Peat spade
After the field has been mowed with the peat scythe or toothed sickle and the turf removed with the paring spade, the peat-cutter uses the peat spade to cut peat, which after drying is used as fuel or fertilizer. It is an iron blade spade (approx. 15 x 20 cm), with one or two raised edges, which is slightly curved (approx. 10-25 °) in relation to a knob or T-handle (75-120 cm) ). The cut of the blade can be straight or pointed and, like the spade, is inserted vertically (1) (approx. 20-25 cm) into the ground. The result is a clod in the shape of a parallelepiped (approx. 20 x 15 x 10 cm). The raised edges serve, in addition to cutting the peat, to keep the clod together. [MOT] (1) A spade is used to cut peat horizontally. (HOVE: 23; BORCHGREVINK: 70).
Paring knife
Vegetables are peeled with a paring knife. It is a small (approx. 16-18 cm) and light (approx. 20-25 gr) knife with a smooth edge, which lies easily in the hand. The blade can take different shapes: it can look like a mini French cook's knife, the edge can be straight or curved, but it always has a sharp point to remove pits. The handle can be wood or plastic. A special model consists of a paring knife with a movable guide. Sometimes the paring knife is combined with a bottleopener. [MOT]
Pasta spoon
Wooden, stainless steel or plastic spoon with long handle (approx. 25 cm) and 8-10 blunt teeth (approx. 2-3 cm) for removing spaghetti from the boiling water and draining it. Some models have an opening in the center of the spoon.The pasta spoon is placed in the pan of the freshly cooked spaghetti and turned around so that the teeth take the strings of spaghetti with them. Take it all over the pan to let it drain.See also spaghetti tongs used after draining spaghetti in a colander. [MOT]
Paring chisel
Wide chisel with one bevel, sometimes without a neck. Since it does lighter work than the firmer chisel, it is theoretically not beaten with the wooden hammer, but pushed. It is also sharper than the firmer chisel. The Japanese chisel (Japanese: tsuki nomi) is longer than the western one and is always used with both hands. It is used for finishing mortise and tenon joints and grooves. [MOT]
Picking knife (basket maker)
A basket maker's picking knife has a wide, curved or semicircular (approx. 4-7 cm) blade with a sharp outside. The basket maker uses the knife to cut off the twigs sticking out of a woven basket. He places the cut on the twig and cuts it off by an axial movement (cf. the curved knife).The picking knife is sometimes replaced by a shoe knife (1). [MOT](1) AUDIGER: 3; LEROUX & DUCHESNE: 4.
Pinching-iron punch
Leather workers such as the saddler use this hand tool to cut decorative shapes from the leather.It is a steel chisel (approx. 10-15 cm long) without handle with a serrated or corrugated blade that can be flat and flared, semicircular or circular (cf. the punch).The cutting chisel is placed on the leather and hit with a hammer; the desired shape is cut into the leather. [MOT]
This tool desciption is not yet translated from the Dutch version.See also the reflex hammer. [MOT]
Piton hammer
For his safety and, in artificial climbing, to get higher, the first climber puts hooks in the crevices of the rock; the latter removes them. The first work can be done with a light fist. However, pulling out the hooks is sometimes difficult and various hammers have been devised to facilitate this. All weigh about 500-670g and usually consist of a square face to drive the hooks in, and a curved pin with notch that can be inserted into the eye of the hook. The handle then becomes the power arm of a lever of the first kind, like a claw hammer. Sometimes there is also a hole in the working part, where a carabiner can be picked up. By forming a chain of three carabiners, the last of which is inserted into the eye of the hook, that hook can sometimes be knocked out. The pin or the more or less pointed end of the working part also serves to drive clamping wedges into gaps. The wooden handle was replaced by the metal, which does not come off. Usually a hole is drilled in the end of the stem for a locking rope that is...
Pointing sword (bricklayer)
The pointing sword (1) is a stonemason's hand tool that was used when placing large blocks of natural stone. These blocks are not placed in mortar like bricks, they are placed on wooden blocks after which the mortar is applied between the stone blocks using this tool (2). The vertical joints are also filled in this way. The large notches on both sides therefore serve to push the mortar forward between the stone blocks. The thin metal blade can be attached in line with the wooden straight handle or form an angle with it. The blade is doubly serrated in shape, with large notches facing forward. The length of the joint sword depends on the dimensions of the masonry that you want to build with it. The pointing sword is similar to the slate ripper but the blade is thinner, the notches are directed forward and the handle does not end in a hook. [MOT] (1) Translation of 'voegzwaard' in Dutch. The proper name in English is yet unknown. (2) Trade catalogue MM. Civet, Crouet, Gautier & Co: Exploitation de carrières de pierres...
Iron round or flat rod (approx. 40-100 cm) with a pointed end, bent or not bent, which is used to start the fire in a fireplace, in a stove, a heating boiler or an oven. Usually the poker ends in a hook or a ring with which it can be hung. For the fireplace or the kettle, there are sets with a poker, an oven-rake, a fire shovel (stoker) and clinker tongs or a pair of fire tongs. [MOT]
Potato masher (cattle)
After the potatoes, turnips, beets and vegetables, which will be used as animal feed, have been transferred from the kettle in which they were cooked (see potato spoon) to a tub, they are crushed with a potato masher. The potato masher is a wooden or iron stamper in all shapes. It can be a round piece of wood, thinner at the top than at the bottom. It can also be a round grid (approx. Diam. 13-15 cm) that is connected to the stem (approx. 55-80 cm) via a fork-shaped intermediate piece (approx. 20-25 cm). Sometimes the masher is also forged in the shape of an S. See also the potato masher to make puree. [MOT]
Potato masher
Kitchen utensil that can be used to crush potatoes and other vegetables. It consists of a round, possibly convex, wooden disc with a stem. With this, the boiled potatoes are pressed through the holes of a colander. The tool can also work in a puree strainer and then its shape is adapted to it (1). In addition to the wooden puree masher, there are also metal models, made of iron, aluminum or sheet iron. With these tools, with an open stamping part, you no longer have to work in a colander or a sieve. See also potato masher (cattle). [MOT] (1) Eg. LUCAS s.d .: 26.
Potato lifting fork
Potatoes can be harvested with a garden spade, a hoe, a potato harvester or a potato lifting fork. The latter has 3 to 4 wide and flat or, in cross section, triangular teeth with pointed ends (approx. 20-30 cm long), which are attached to a wooden T or D handle (approx. 1 m) . To scoop potatoes, a potato fork is used, the teeth of which are much closer together and end in balls so as not to damage the potatoes. Can be distinguished from the digging fork. See also dung fork. [MOT]
Pipe layer
After the drain laddle has been accurately finished off the drain trench, the worker, who remains on the edge of the trench - or across it - can lower the drain pipes with a pipe layer into it and press them against the other.  More technical information on the dutch version of this page. [MOT]
Pizza wheel
Kitchen utensil with a relatively large (approx. 6-7 cm diameter) and sturdy stainless steel cutting wheel, fixed in a wooden, plastic or aluminum handle that flares out towards the wheel to protect the fingers. With a pizza wheel you can cut a pizza base out of the dough and, when the pizza is baked, you can cut it into slices with it. To be distinguished from the pastry cutting wheel. [MOT]
Pliers for cutting rings
These pliers are used to saw through a glued ring, which for example cannot be removed with soap or wire, without damaging the skin. There are also models for left-handers. More technical information on the Dutch version of this page. [MOT]
Potato ricer
Potatoes can be mashed more easily into puree with a potato ricer. The boiled potatoes are placed in the container and the tongs are squeezed shut. The potatoes are pressed through the holes of the ricer. See also the puree strainer. [MOT]
Pruning shears
The pruning shears are used to prune shrubs and vines, to pick flowers, etc. Nowadays they usually replace the pruning knife. It is often used by the basket maker in place of the curved knife to cut the twigs. The hand tool consists of two levers of the first type, which revolve around a spindle placed about one third of their length. The arms of about 15 cm are straight or slightly bent outwards. To keep the tool in place when not in use, a metal hook or leather ring is attached to the end of an arm; on recent models these have sometimes been replaced by a right next to the hub. During work, the scissors pop open thanks to a spring. The two curved blades of about 5 cm lie in the same plane as the arms (cf. thorn-hedge shears). One of these is usually thick and blunt today; the gardener must always ensure that the cutting blade is on the side of the trunk to obtain a smooth cut. On some recent models, a notch in one of the blades allows thin iron wire to be cut. There are also pruning shears with one jaw forming...
Putty knife
The putty knife is used to apply putty to glass rebates. There are different forms that are said to be regional. The blade can be pointed or blunt, stiff or springy, straight or curved. The house painter uses the putty knife, after priming the woodwork, to plug nail and screw holes with putty. A rather rare model has small slots in the blade (1), just like a glass cutter, to break off small pieces of glass. See also this coopers knife and the oyster knife. [MOT] (1) See JACKSON & DAY: 170 and SALAMAN 1976: 251.
Rawhide hammer
Hammer (approx. 600-1000 gr) of which the cylindrical head (approx. 7-8 cm diameter) is made of leather, with a metal intermediate piece. It is often possible to screw caps of different materials (rubber, nylon) onto the intermediate piece. The handle is made of wood, plastic or metal. Another lighter model has a cylindrical head that is completely wrapped in leather. The leather hammer is used for machining material whose surface must not be damaged. See also nylon face hammer and rubber face hammer. [MOT]
Iron, copper or plastic syringer with reservoir (0.250 - 0.5 l), which works by negative pressure: the air jet created by the pump sucks up the liquid and spreads it in very fine droplets. The sprayer is used to moisten the leaves of plants and to apply a pesticide against parasites, fungi, weeds or flies. See also the syringer for flowers. [MOT]
The priest is a light (approx. 150 gr) bat-shaped hand tool of about 30 cm long made of wood, copper or plastic and with or without a widened (diam. approx. 3-4 cm) end (length approx. 6-12 cm) which is often weighted with lead.With a priest, the angler gives the caught fish a short, hard blow to the head to switch off the brain. This either to kill the fish immediately or to stun it before killing it with another technique, such as slitting its throat, for example.The handle is also used in the same way on some folding fishing knives. [MOT]
Reaping hook
The reaping hook is used in combination with a flemish scythe. It serves to keep the stalks together during the work and to gather the chopped grain into a sheaf. The reaping hook has a curved or straight pointed iron hook (approx. 15-30 cm) that is attached at right angles to a straight wooden handle (approx. 80-100 cm). A slot is usually provided about 10 cm from the end of the handle to insert the blade of the flemish scythe through so that it can be carried over the shoulder. [MOT]
Rattail file
The rat tail (1) is a cone-shaped or cylindrical file or rasp. The first is to sharpen some saws with large teeth, eg a pit saw, the second is to clean small holes or arcs. [MOT] (1) Also ramasse (e.g. N.L.I.) to indicate the long cylindrical rasp that widened the cavity for the ramrod of the rifle
The racer serves to cut grooves on the inside of the leather to facilitate folding. It is also used to draw stitching seams. The tool is always being pulled towards you. The racer consists of a thick (about 3.5 mm) iron, usually hook-shaped, blade (about 5.5 by 10 cm) of which the sloping side is bent to form a cutting U-shaped point. The working part sticks by means of a tang in a wooden handle (approx. 13 cm) that is reinforced with a ferrule. Another model consists of a flat iron bar with one or both ends bent into a scribe (1). The racer may also consist of a steel tweezer-shaped tool with hooked or non-hooked ends (2). One end is bent and cuts. The other end serves as a guide. With this model, a groove is cut parallel to the edge of the piece of leather. A screw adjusts the width (max. Approx. 2.5 cm) of the edge. To cut arcuate grooves in the grain side of a piece of leather, a compass race is used. Can be distinguished from the beam scribe. [MOT] (1) Eg. SALAMAN: 230. (2) Eg. SALAMAN: 230.
Roofer's hammer
Hammer (400-800 gr) used by the slater when covering or repairing a slate roof. It is a composite tool that has a pointed end on one side - which punch holes for the nails in the slates - and on the other side a hammer end that drives the slate nails into the wood. In the middle, between the two ends, there may be a pear-shaped cutout with which nails can be pulled out. Another possibility is that there is a protrusion with a V-shaped cutout at the top. Between the working part and the hammer handle there is - on one or both sides - a sharp side with which the slates are cut to size. This is done with the help of a slater's stake. [MOT]
Rubber tapping knife
Rubber is extracted from the milk sap (latex) of the heveas. Extraction is done by tapping the living tree with the tapping knife. The latex is cut transversely. Therefore, the tap cut is made at an angle of approximately 30 ° to the horizontal plane, causing the latex to run off the cut. A metal gutter is attached under the cut, through which the latex ends up in the receptacle (1).The tap knife has a metal curved blade with a U-shaped curved lip at the end and a straight wooden handle of approx. 10 cm. When tapping, a strip of bark of about 1.5 cm thickness is cut away with this sharp lip.The tap knife resembles the timber scribe with which a tree to be felled is marked and the clog maker's timber scribe with which the clogmaker applies decorations to clogs. [MOT](1) See eg VAN DEN ABEELE & VANDENPUT: 374.
Ring dog
The ring dog is a heavy (1.5-4.5 kg) (1) metal hook with one or two loose ring (s) (diameter approx. 11-15 cm; entire length 30-50 cm) to tilt trunks, to loosen a tree that has fallen on top of the other and sometimes to pull small stumps out of the ground (2). A wooden stake (1.50-2 m) is inserted into the ring with one end on the trunk. When it is pushed upwards, the point of the hook first protrudes into the wood, then the trunk tilts. When the latter could roll back, two men work together: the first holds back the piece while the other grabs it again. There are also adjustable models. The ring dog is mainly used in the forest. The cant hook is used at the workplace. See also the sappie. [MOT] (1) HILF: 407. (2) GAYER & FABRICIUS: 168; BOUCKAERT & POSKIN: 29.
Safety razor
Metal blade (approx. 4 cm by 1 cm) that cuts on one or two sides and which is placed in a cap that is attached at right angles to a straight handle (approx. 7-10 cm). The whole can be made of metal or plastic. In the past, the blades were sharpened on a specially designed razor strop; today they are disposable blades. Compared to the razor knife, the safety razor makes it easier to shave without cutting. [MOT]
The sappie serves to rotate trunks and beams, sometimes also to pull them (cf. cant hook, ring dog). It is a pointed, slightly curved iron of about 25-30 cm, with an eye at the end, into which a straight or curved handle of 1.10-1.40 m protrudes (weight: 2.5-5 kg). The iron is placed on the ground, under the trunk. The user pulls on the handle, which is almost vertical. The point then sticks into the wood and the trunk rolls. When a piece is pulled, the user punches his tool into the wood, as he sometimes does with his axe, to have a grip. [MOT]
Rescue knife
The rescue knife is an S-shaped or hooked (1) blade with an inside edge and a knotted point, which is used by firefighters, emergency services, rescue teams at car races, on rescue fleets, etc. to open or remove clothes, belts or ropes. by cutting. The cut is on the inside and the tip is knotted so as not to injure the victim. Often the knife sticks in a sheath that can be attached to the belt. See also the window-smasher, the seat belt cutter and the twine knife. [MOT] (1) SCHAERER: 626.
Sand shovel (brickmaker)
Monoxile (willow) shovel with slightly trapezoidal blade and rounded corners, with which the brickmaker scoops the dry river sand into a wheelbarrow. The sand should ensure that the clay does not stick to the wooden tools. The brickmaker's sand shovel can be distinguished from the mud scupit. [EMABB]
After cutting a groove (see splitting chisel) and forming the nail holes in the horseshoe (see this stamp hammer), the farrier uses a horseshoe pritchel to punch through or enlarge the holes. The horseshoe pritchel is a long (approx. 25-40 cm) iron chisel that ends in a small rectangular (approx. 3 mm by 1.5 mm) point. See also the clinch cutter. [MOT]
Rubber (furrier)
Wedge-shaped wooden hand tool (approx. 10-12 cm long; approx. 7-10 cm wide) with a blunt metal or horn blade, sometimes with rounded corners, fixed in the narrow tapered end. The furrier uses the expanded wood to flatten seams (see also seam rubber), smoothly rubbing nailed material and stretching the wetted sheets. It is handled with the right hand while holding the skin with the left hand. [MOT]
Hand tool with a crescent-shaped or slightly curved blade (approx. 20-60 cm), the edge of which is sometimes provided with small teeth - oblique to the handle - and attached to a short handle (approx. 10-15 cm). The sickle, which weighs about 200-500 gr, is used to harvest (winter) grain, grass, beans, etc. With one hand you hold the stems, with the other - in which you keep the sickle - you cut them off. In general, therefore, cutting is done by friction. However, chopping is also done (1). Exceptionally, a toothed sickle was used as a knife to cut a clod of butter in all directions to get the hairs, straws and the like out (2). The Japanese sickle has an elongated, relatively short (approx. 15-20 cm) blade that is attached at right angles to an approx. 30-40 cm long stem. The edge is slightly concave; the back is convex and relatively wide (approx. 2-6 mm). That sickle weighs about 150 g and is used to cut grass and to harvest rice; a heavier version (approx. 500 g), for...
Shoe knife
The shoe knife is a full metal blade without handle (1), approx. 15-25 cm long, which is used by the shoemaker to bevel the edges of leather and trim the edges of the sole. The cut is straight and is oblique in the plane of the blade.The blade is often wider towards the cutting end. It can also be concave lengthwise; in this way one avoids damaging the shoe when the edges of the sole are cut.This knife is used by other leather workers in addition to the shoemaker. For example, the bookbinder uses the knife to thin out the edges of the leather before they are folded over the cover. The basket maker sometimes uses a shoemaker's knife instead of a picking knife (basket maker). [MOT](1) Often referred to as 'German' or 'Swedish' knives (SALAMAN 1986: 141); sometimes the handle is wrapped in thin leather (SALAMAN 1986: 141).
Shoulder knife
The shoulder knife is a manual tool used by the marquetry worker to cut veneer (1). It has a blade (approx. 6 cm) with a straight or curved edge. The end of the long wooden handle (approx. 57 cm) is slightly curved and rests on the shoulder of the user. This way he has more control over the knife and can put more pressure.It is also sometimes used as a chip carving knife (2).See also the cutting gauge. [MOT](1) In the 18th century, the cutting gauge was preferred over the shoulder knife. See ROUBO: 847.(2) From DICK catalog: 53.
Shoeing hammer
The hoof hammer is a hammer (300-600 gr) with a round, flat face and split pin that closely resembles the claw hammer (carpenter) but can still be distinguished from it because its claw is usually shorter and more curved. The farrier uses this hammer to nail the horseshoe - when it fits perfectly on the hoof after several heatings and hammerings. The nails should be hammered outwards so as not to hurt the flesh of the foot. The claws are used to rivet the nails that protrude beyond the hoof. [MOT]
Elongated (approx. 8-25 cm), rounded, slightly concave piece of plastic, metal or horn that is held against the inside of a shoe while it is being put on. Because the hollow takes the shape of the heel, it slides easily into the shoe along it without pushing the back flat. Sometimes the shoehorn is provided with a button hook at the other end. [MOT]
Ship maul hammer
The ship maul hammer is used to drive in and out heavy nails, bolts and stud nails and is mainly used by the shipwright. It is a heavy metal pointed hammer on a long handle. The point is straight and has the shape of a truncated cone. The tool is struck with a hammer or club hammer. See also the hand punch. [MOT]
Before threshing, the farmer cuts loose the twine or straw that binds the sheaves with the sheaf-knife. The blade usually consists of a piece of a scythe blade. It is therefore often slightly curved with a broad back, ending in a point. The length of the blade varies from 12 to 20 cm and is inserted into a straight handle (approx. 10-20 cm). See also the thatching knife and the bale tie cutter. [MOT]