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??? What are these question marks doing here? These represent tools which we know by a Dutch or French term, but for which we couldn't find a proper English term. Suggestions for a name are always welcome!

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Coal scoop (brickmaker)
During the firing of bricks in a ring kiln, small amounts of coal are added from above (see also coal funnel). This is done with a semi-cylindrical coal shovel.. See also coal scoop and coal shovel. [MOT]
Coal shovel
Shovel with broad blade and sloping edges, fitted with a wooden D-handle. The coal shovel is used by the coal merchant for shoveling coal. See also the charging shovel. [MOT]
Clog maker's timber scribe
Hand tool that is very similar to the timber scribe and the beam scribe and is used by the clog maker to decorate the clogs. See also hoof cleaning knife. [MOT]
Commander (basket maker)
For more technical information on this hand tool of a basket maker, you can visit the dutch version of this page. [MOT]
A currycomb is used to clean a horse or cow. The coarse dried dirt can be gently scraped off the skin with it. The currycomb also opens the sweat holes of the horse skin (1). The currycomb consists of a metal plate with two to eight rows of short (approx. 3 mm) blunt teeth and a handle (approx. 10 cm) or strap for putting the hand through. The working part can have different shapes. For example, it can consist of serrated plates that are mounted parallel in a wooden or to an iron plate or frame (approx. 15 by 10 cm). It can also be a semi-cylindrical plate, where both sides are serrated, or consist of different serrated rings that are mounted on a plate or crossbar. Nowadays a rubber disc with studs is also used. The currycomb can be combined with a mane comb, the blunt teeth of which are much longer. Distinguished from the soft horse brush, used to clean and smooth the horse's short hair. [MOT]
Drain ladle
To lay drainage pipes, a trench is first dug one or two stitches deep (and approx. 50-60 cm wide) with the garden spade and the spade. After the loose soil that the spade has not been able to absorb has been removed with a masonry shovel, also with a kind of flat drain laddle, the trench is brought to depth with the narrow drain spade. Finally, with the drain laddle, the bottom of the trench is finished very accurately and at the required slope, so that the pipes can be placed on it (see pipe layer); the worker is standing next to the slot. [MOT]
Crucible tongs
Crucible tongs are metal tongs with relatively long arms (approx. 10-40 cm) and convex curved jaws, with which the melting pot can be removed from the fire. Large versions of crucible tongs are also used in founding metals like bronze to pour the molten metal into the mould. These tools are 2 to 4 meters long and must be handled with two people (1). [MOT] (1) One also speaks of 'foundry ladle' or 'bull ladle'. See SELLENS, 270.
Crate axe
Some bulky or fragile goods are transported in wooden crates. Sometimes a nail extractor, but usually a crowbar is used to open them. The latter is sometimes combined with an ax and a hammer; it then becomes a crate ax. There are several models of that composite tool. In general, it is made entirely of iron and weighs 0.4-0.8 kg. The handle continues above the ax and the hammer; he forms a crowbar there. Sometimes a drop-shaped hole is drilled in the stem or a notch in the blade of the ax to pull out long nails. [MOT]
Cork driver
Monoxile hand tool with a flat, often oval-shaped part that is tapped. It has a straight handle - distinguishable from the laundry beater - for knocking the cork into the bottle. Bottles can also be corked with a corking machine. [MOT]
Draw bore pin
The draw bore pin serves to pull together heavy mortise and tenon joints. It is an iron cone-shaped bar of about 20-30 cm on which a wing with a hole is forged. More technical information on this page in dutch. See also the peg of emergency. [MOT]
Cotton hook
Hand tool that can be used to move bales. It may be a metal S-shaped hook (approx. 20 cm long; approx. 300 gr) with a wooden T-shaped handle, similar to the wood hook and the box hook. It can also be a double crochet. See also this cargo hook. [MOT]
Decorator's tongs
Decorator's tongs are a composite tool to be able to perform as many operations as possible with one tool. These pliers consist of carpenter's pincers, fitter's pliers, wire cutting pliers, a hammer, an axe, a crow bar and a screwdriver. [MOT]
Fireman's Axe
The fireman's axe mainly serves to break open doors and windows, but it is used for all kinds of purposes (1). Today it closely resembles a woodman's axe. The straight handle often ends in a small sphere to provide a better grip. Often there is a notch at the bottom of the blade to pull out nails and a spring strengthens the connection with the stem (2). Very common is a pointed axe, i.e. an axe with a heavy point opposite the edge (3). Here too one or two springs are often found. Today there are firefighter's axes made of a non-sparking alloy. The stem can be short (about 35 cm) or long (about 80-90 cm). The short handle often has slight bumps along its entire length to provide a better grip; when isolated, it is usually serrated. The handle of some models ends in a heavy iron point. [MOT] (1) Eg. to drive a peg of emergency into the wall. Certain models appear in military and security equipment. See also the window-smasher to shatter safety glass in a bus, train or plane....
Fire shovel (blacksmith)
The fire shovel is an iron shovel (length approx. 75 cm; width approx. 12 cm) with usually a flat blade and iron handle, with which the blacksmith brings the coals together and covers the piece to be heated. Often the handle is open. See also the ash shovel and fire shovel (stoker). [MOT]
Fire shovel (stoker)
Iron shovel (length 100-120 cm; width 15-20 cm) with flat blade and iron handle, with which the coals are brought together in the boiler. Often the stem ends in a ring. The stoker's fire shovel is usually part of a set, along with a poker, oven rake and clinker tongs. See also fire shovel (blacksmith). [MOT]
Endive lifting fork
The endive or chicory (Chicorium intybus L. var. Foliosum) can be harvested with the help of a spade, a fork or a plow (1), but also with a special tool, the endive  fork. It has two short (approx. 25 cm) tines that are bent apart in the middle - the distance between the tines is approx. 2 cm - and which are attached to a short, wooden T (2) or D handle ( approx. 30 cm). The endive lifting fork is put into the ground behind the plant. By pushing the stem of the fork backwards, the root of the plant can easily be pulled out of the ground. See also the beet lifting fork, endive harvesting fork. [MOT] (1) SIMON: 13. (2) Sometimes the stem does not protrude in the middle of the handle (see MOT V 2012.0554).
Hand tool used by the shoeing-smith to trim the tail beyond the tailbone of draft horses (1). It is tang-shaped with relatively long (approx. 30-40 cm) arms, with or without wooden handles. One jaw is cut in a U-shape and is hollow so that the cutting blade fits on the other jaw; exceptionally it is made of wood (2). The tail is cut just after the sacrum so that it cannot grow back. The wound is burned out with a cauterizing iron. [MOT] (1) N.L.I .: s.v. brûle-queue, reports that the horse's tail was cut off after it suffered a stroke. (2) STOQUART: 23.
Enema syringe
Metal (tin or copper) or rubber syringe (1) with which an enema is applied through the vent opening in the rectum, for example to promote bowel movements or to administer medicines or food (2); for humans an irrigator is also used, sometimes an enema. The enema sprayer for livestock, where one applies 3 to 4 liters (3), is about 60-70 cm long. This one for people, about 20 cm. See also the syringer for flowers. [MOT] (1) Exceptionally also glass (BENNION: 170). (2) Tobacco smoke was sometimes used to reanimate drowning people. (3) Larousse agricole s.v. lavement.
Digging fork
A digging fork is used to work or crumble stony or strongly cohesive (clay) soil and to dig in manure. In the (vegetable) garden, unlike the garden spade, the roots of the plant are less damaged when transplanting with the digging fork. For the same reason, the gardener also prefers this tool for sticking out creepers and shrubs. A slightly wider and longer fork is used as a potato lifting fork. See also the little digging fork. [MOT]
Escargot tongs
Escargot are often too hot to hold with the hand, so escargot tongs are used. These tongs have crossed arms that are held closed by a spring. The spring is adapted to the shape of the cochlea, so that the escargot can be grasped well. Due to the spring, the tongs clamp around the escargot when the arms are no longer squeezed. The cochlea is now fixed enough to remove the meat with an escargot fork.See also the snail plate. [MOT]
Dough scraper
Hand tool with which the last bits of dough are scraped from the baking trough. It is a metal tool with a wide-flared or square blade that is perpendicular to the metal handle (1).See also the dough grater. [MOT](1) In Great Britain you can also find dough scrapers with a tang or with a socket and wooden handle.
Egg beater
This kitchen utensil serves to whisk egg whites and the like. It is considerably lighter and faster than with a regular wire whisk. See also the spiral whisk and mayonnaise whipper. More technical information on the Dutch version of this page. [MOT]
Dung axe
Axe with high (approx. 30 cm), heavy and thick (approx. 4 mm) iron blade and arc-shaped blade, which is connected to a wooden handle (approx. 90 cm). The dung axe is used to cut through the tamped manure - in the potting shed or outside - in contrast to the flauchter spade that is used for cutting. See also turf cutting axe. [MOT
Forging hammer
The forging hammer is the tool of the blacksmith, with which he does all the forging work, whether or not together with a sledgehammer. It is a fairly heavy (approx. 500-2000 gr) hammer with a fairly thick wedge-shaped peen, which in some cases lies in the same direction as the handle (approx. 30-35 cm). The face is light-convex and the sharp edges must be carefully removed as otherwise the iron to be processed cannot be finished flat (1). Can be distinguished from some models of bench hammers that are lighter. See also the farrier's hammer. [MOT] (1) VAN DONGEN: 78.
Elongated tool (approx. 20 cm long; approx. 2 cm wide) usually made of bone, but possibly also horn, wood or ivory with rounded edges. One short side is more pointed than the other. It is used by the bookbinder and printer to flatten the corners and edges of the cover of a book and to press the crease in the spine. It is made of bone because this material does not leave a permanent crease mark in the paper or leather. See also the paperknife and polishing bone. [MOT]
Fire swatter
The fire swatter is a hand tool that the fire brigade uses to extinguish a running fire in grass, heather, etc. while beating. It replaces the common twigs that were used in the past. The fire swatter consists of 10 flexible iron bands that are clamped in a fan-like holder in which a long wooden handle (approx. 200 cm) protrudes. To be distinguished from the eelspear. See also the mop. [MOT]
Flesh fork
The flesh fork is used to take pieces of meat or bacon from a saucepan or to attach them to roast them on the fire. It is a fork with two, sometimes three tines and a long - often hook-shaped - handle (30 to 80 cm). It is usually made entirely of iron. See also the toasting fork. [MOT]
Firewood saw
Span saw for cutting firewood. Her arms are not parallel: the blade is longer than the rope. One of the arms protrudes from under the blade and serves as a handle. One arm of some saws has a handle cut out (1). Today, the ordinary span saw is replaced by a metal arc saw, which is also used for felling small trees. The firewood to be cut is usually placed on a sawhorse. The saw works in both directions and is held horizontal or at an angle. [MOT] (1) Eg. GOZIN: fig. 34.
Fish scaler
To quickly and easily scale fish, one usually uses a fish scaler, with which one rubs the fish from tail to head, so against the scales.The metal, always serrated, blade of the fish scaler can be in the shape of a ring or triangle, a hair brush (1) or a dough scraper (2). The (wooden) handle forms an obtuse angle (approx. 5 °) with the working part or is attached to it with a kink.Often the fish scaler is part of the folding fishing knife. The sharp, serrated edge of a shell can also serve as a fish scaler.See also pocket knife. [MOT](1) Eg. CAMPBELL FRANKLIN: 100 and CAMPBELL: 84.
Foam scraper
In geuze production, wild yeasts settle in during the cooling of the boiled wort through contact with the outside air. Afterwards, the brewer transfers the wort to wooden barrels where it continues to ferment for one to three years (1). With the foam scraper, a full iron scraper with a long handle (approx. 110 cm), the overflowing foam is scraped off the staves. See also the cooper's handle-scraper. [MOT] (1) The result of the fermentation is the 'lambic' beer.
Flat pickaxe
When heavy blocks of coal are loosened, the miner cuts two vertical and one horizontal slots at the bottom with his pickaxe. The flat pickaxe is a short straight flat pick with a sharp point at both ends and a wooden or metal handle up to 180 cm long. (1) See also pickaxe. [MOT] (1) Eg. HABETS: 11.
Fish chopping-knife
Chopper with a heavy, elongated or curved blade that is fixed in a straight handle and used to chop fish into pieces. It is distinguishable from the single-handed meat cleaver because it is lighter and has a rounded, thinner blade. The cut is straight or convex. [MOT]
A froe-maul is a piece of hard round wood (including hornbeam) of about 30-40 cm, one end of which has been cut thinner to serve as a handle. With the froe-maul, the cooper strikes the cleaving knife and the lath maker, on the cleaving iron. [MOT]
Fruit picker
The fruit picker is a hand tool to pick the last fruit from a tall tree. For more technical information, see the dutch version of this tool file. [MOT]
Garden spade
Today it is a spade with an iron, more or less rectangular or triangular blade, about a third longer than it is wide (approx. 27 x 18 cm), which is an extension of a ball, T or D handle (1) . The size of the blade depends on the force required to lift and move the soil clod (2). The blade of the garden spade is sometimes provided with a footrest so as not to damage the shoe of the user. Exceptionally, an extension is attached to the top of the blade of the garden spade to use the tool as a spade (3). In the past, the garden spade was also made entirely of wood. She was shaken up then. Dimensions and shape of the blade can vary greatly. In Ireland there are even asymmetrical spades (4). The garden spade is used to dig the garden or field, to transplant crops and to dig (5). [MOT] (1) Tool length can vary widely depending on the region. In Belgium, for example, garden spades of about 110-120 cm are used, in Italy tools of 160 to 210 cm are used (see eg CENCELLI & LOTRIONE:...
Garden pulverizer
The garden pulverizer consists of 3 to 5 rotating star-shaped wheels (1) with a total working width of approx. 10-20 cm. Approx. 10 cm behind the wheels is a removable (2) narrow (approx. 3 cm) and movable hoe blade with upwardly curved ends. The wooden handle (approx. 150-170 cm) is inserted into a socket that is connected to the working part by means of a bracket. Together they form an angle of approx. 45 °. The garden pulverizer is mainly used after digging to crumble up clumps. It is also used to house fertilizer or seed or to aerate and work the soil between the rows of plants. With the scuffle hoe you can remove the weeds between the rows of plants. The whole is used with pushing and pulling movements. See also the hand harrow and grubber with long handle. [MOT] (1) Jules Simon's catalog: 80, shows a clod breaker with 2 rows of wheels to crumble heavier soil or used on large areas. (2) COENEN: 18 shows a model where the two working parts can be used separately.
Fur plier
Tongs (approx. 20-30 cm long) with long (approx. 8-10 cm), flat, transversely grooved jaws, one of which is shaded on the outside. Usually one arm is straight and the other bent. The furrier uses the tongs to smooth and nail the fur to let it dry. She is held in the right hand while the fur is put on with the left hand; then it is grasped by the edge with the pliers and a nail is placed on it, which is driven into the board by gently tapping it with the shaded underside of the jaw. See also these frame-maker's plier and upholsterer's pliers. [MOT]
Garden hoe
Hand tool that resembles the regular hoe, but is lighter (approx. 500-800 g) and also has a longer handle (approx. 120-150 cm). With this hoe, the gardener breaks the top layer of the soil to uproot weeds and / or, in case of drought, to reduce evaporation. In contrast to the regular hoe, this tool does not cut, but the blade is pulled superficially through the ground while pulling it back, and the weeds are possibly pushed loose again when cutting back. See also the scuffle hoe, small garden hoe, weeding hoe, hand cultivator. [MOT]
Furrier's knife (standard)
Knife specially designed for fur work (approx. 10-15 cm long), completely made of metal and without handle, often with two copper beads, one on the high back and one on the flared end. The index finger then rests on the bulge on the back; the palm of the hand rests on the bulge on the end of the knife. There is also a model with an interchangeable blade and a model in pocket knife format (fur knife + small furrier's comb). When cutting, the fur is lifted with the left hand so far that the cut comes clear of the table; so the hair is not cut. [MOT]
Glazier's hammer
Hammer (approx. 150-500 gr) with a narrow (approx. 1-2 cm) head used by the glazier to knock small nails into the window frame. There are different models: with two square faces, two round faces and with one round face and a wedge-shaped pin. Often the handle of the glazier's hammer is finished as a glazing lever. To be distinguished from the upholsterer's hammer. [MOT]
Frozen-food knife
Serrated blade (about 20-30 cm) with a wooden or plastic handle that can be used to cut frozen food. The blade can have long, pointed teeth or a wide, sharp wave edge (compare bread knife and snow saw). It can also have a cut on the other side with which, for example, bread can be cut. [MOT]
Glove stick
Elongated (approx. 30 cm), monoxile conical stick with a straight handle - distinguishable from the curling iron - which is used to stretch and widen the fingers of gloves, eg after washing. Glove stretchers can also be used for the same purpose. [MOT]
Funnel (coal)
During the baking of bricks in an annular kiln, small amounts of coal are added from above. The coal is poured into a long narrow funnel with a coal shovel (see coal scoop (brick maker)). It is held with the left hand while the right hand empties the full scoop. [MOT]
Grain sieve
After the grain has been threshed with the flail and the grain straw has been removed, grains, chaff, clods, short straw, stones and other impurities remain together. Some of the impurities are removed with the help of the grain sieve. By shaking the sieve back and forth, the grains fall through, leaving chaff and short straw behind. The grain sieve is also used to separate chaff from dust / sand (1). The flax worker also uses a grain sieve to separate the linseed from the chaff after threshing (see bruising mail). The grain sieve is a large (diam. 50-100 cm) round sieve (2) with 2-3 wooden rings (height approx. 10-20 cm) between which a flat perforated bottom of metal (zinc) or leather (3) is clamped. In the latter the small round or elongated holes (diam. 1-2 mm; center distance approx. 4 mm) (4) are punched with a punch. The center of the sieve bottom is often decorated with a figure, a date, initials and / or place name. Sometimes 1, 3 or 4 holes or slots are provided...
Hand cultivator
Garden tool consisting of a usually 130-150 cm long (1) wooden handle with three to five - but always in an odd number - curved iron teeth for opening and turning the soil. The working part (approx. 10 to 25 cm wide) can be fixed or exchangeable. In the latter case, you can choose the number of teeth. The tips of the teeth are oval or triangular flattened. In contrast to the garden hoe, with the hand cultivator the solid underlying soil, with the sharp flat points and by its pulling movement, is slightly raised and opened up. The middle tines of a hand cultivator are slightly shorter so that the soil clod can be crumbled. To be distinguished from the grubber, which is narrower and mainly serves to break the ground superficially. See also the manual towed hand cultivator and hand wheel hoe. [MOT]
Grass hook
The grass hook is used by the gardener and do-it-yourselfer to cut some grass and weeds on small areas. It is a small scythe consisting of a slightly curved sharp steel blade (approx. 30-40 cm) with a wide back and ending in a point, which is fixed at right angles to a wooden handle (approx. 10-80 cm). The scythe with short handle is used stooping with one hand; the one with a long, usually straight handle is held with both hands and used while standing. Sometimes the long stem has a slight kink about 12 inches from the tip. See also the grass whip. [MOT]
Grape shears
Grapes can be harvested with a grape knife or grape shears. With the latter one obtains a much nicer cut than with a harvesting knife. The shears have two narrow blades (approx. 1 cm) with a straight cut; the arms can be made of metal or consist of a wooden covering around a metal plate. They are held together by a ring that is located on the bottom of one arm and that can be fastened around the other arm. There is a spring between the arms. See also grape scissors. [MOT]
Hairdresser's scissors
Light scissors (approx. 50 g), made entirely of metal - possibly with plastic-covered arms - with triangular narrow (approx. 1 cm) blades, with which the hairdresser cuts hair. The hairs are taken per strip between index and middle fingers and cut to the desired length. The tailor also uses such scissors to cut delicate fabrics such as lingerie. See also thinning scissors. [MOT]
In the past, the pleats in hats, lace, etc. were applied with a heated goffer. The mouth of the tool is wide and wavy on the inside. Goffering irons could also be used, but their mouth is narrower and consists of two long round rods. Larger pieces were passed through a fluted roller. [MOT]
Grain shovel
The grain shovel is a wooden shovel (approx. 150 cm long) used to stir the grain and to scoop it into the winnowing machine and bags. See also grain scoop and grain scoop bin. To be distinguished from the mould board shovel. [MOT]