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??? What are these question marks doing here? These represent tools which we know by a Dutch or French term, but for which we couldn't find a proper English term. Suggestions for a name are always welcome!

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Bench hammer
Hammer of various shapes, some models of which are very similar to a joiner's hammer. The peen, which can be at right angles to or in the same direction as the stem, is wedge-shaped or has been replaced by a sphere. The tool weighs between 100 and 1300 g. The bench fitter, but also the blacksmith, the car repairer and even the joiner use the bench hammer for all kinds of work. The silversmith uses a bench hammer with a convex peen to knock the inlay metal into place in so-called parquet (1). To be distinguished from the forging hammer which is heavier. See also the whetting anvil. [MOT] (1) Technique in which molds of different metals are placed in a closely contiguous "patch pattern".
Boot jack
The boot jack is a wooden or metal (now also plastic) tool for easy removal of boots.Usually it consists of a fork-shaped branch or plank (approx. 25-30 cm by 10 cm). Underneath there is a cross wood or a metal support so that the fork or the notch is about 5 cm above the ground. The whole can also be made of metal.The back of the one boot is inserted into the fork-shaped end and the other foot is placed on the board.Another model consists of a plank into which an opening in the shape of a foot has been cut (1).There is also a foldable model where the shelf is hinged in the middle so that it can be taken with you on a journey more easily.The boot jack can be combined with a brush or a boot hook. [MOT](1) ARMINJON & BLONDEL: 336 write that this model can be provided with a hinged long handle that can be grasped as a support.
Boot hook
A sturdy metal hook (approx. 10-23 cm) with a wooden, bone or metal T-handle (sometimes a ring, see boot jack) with which to put on high boots. Sometimes a button hook and a punch were forged on the end of the T-handle (1).The boot hook is inserted into the strap that is attached to the top of the boot; then the foot is put into the boot and the boot is put on. When the boot has two straps, two boot hooks can be used.The hook may have a decorated shank or a spherical button on the end to prevent the hook from slipping out of the strap; some are foldable.A boot jack can be used to take off boots easily. [MOT](1) David Stanley Auctions. 65th international auction 28th March 2015: 11.
Bow saw
The rotary saw is a span saw of approx. 60 cm, very similar to the rip saw but with a narrow blade (1 cm) and relatively wide set teeth so that it can easily follow curved lines. Thanks to the knobs that stop it at both ends, the blade in its frame can be turned in all directions. It can also be detached for insertion through a hole drilled in a shelf. This saw is handled vertically. See also the ordinary span saw. [MOT]
Bolt cutters
With these heavy duty wire cutters you can cut reinforcing bar. The military uses a folding model to cut heavy wire or fencing. More technical information on our Dutch pages. [MOT]
Bleacher's shovel
Wooden, long (approx. 2-2.15 m) gutter-shaped shovel with which the bleacher sprayed the linnen - which was spread out on the meadow - with water from the ditch. The combination of the sunlight, the grass on which the linnen was laid and the water made the gray linnen white in colour. In Germany a copper spoon which somewhat resembles the liquid manure scoop, or a watering can was used for this purpose (1). See also the mud scuppit. [MOT] (1) "Die grosse Wäsche'': 161.
Boning knife
Raw meat is boned with a boning knife. It has a sturdy, narrow blade (approx. 10-20 cm long) with a wide back and a sharp point. It is attached in a wooden or plastic handle that is usually shaped in such a way that the hand - which becomes greasy during boning - cannot slip on the blade. See also the ham boner. [MOT]
Box hook
Metal S-shaped hook (approx. 30 cm) with straight or T-handle, used by the porter in ports to "move strong boxes or crates and other goods when the packaging and contents are not damaged" (1). It can be distinguished from the cotton hook and the wood hook. [MOT] (1) JANSE: 27.
Bread knife
Knife with a fairly rigid, straight and long (approx. 20-30 cm) blade, so that even large breads can be cut. You can also cut a cake horizontally with it to spread a layer of whipped cream, pudding, etc. The bread was often cut on the breast, so with the cut towards you. That's why bread knives were made with a hook-shaped handle so that the hand would not slip. In order to be able to exert a greater force with less effort, knives were also made with a support for the forearm (1) or with loose supports through which the blade protruded. There is also a more or less sickle-shaped bread knife with a smooth edge that was also used on the chest. The cut can be smooth, wavy (2) or serrated (see also frozen-food knife knife and snow saw). With teeth it is easier to get through the crust. There are also bread knives that have a cut on both sides, eg one wavy and one with teeth. To facilitate regular cutting, guides were made that could be attached to the blade of any knife and knives...
Cant hook
The cant hook serves to turn logs, sometimes beams (cf. ring dog and sappie). With a modern model, in particular the log jack (1), it is also possible to lift a trunk to cut it. The tool consists of a wooden rod of about 1.20-1.75 m, to which a heavy metal hook is attached by means of a ring. That hook revolves around a spindle. The bottom end is studded with a metal plate or ends in a metal tip that allows the tool to be pushed (2). Holes are sometimes drilled in the hook; it is then fixed by means of a bolt and can be adjusted. The cant hook is used like the ring dog except that the rod is attached to the ring. In general, two or three men work together. When working alone, sometimes two cant hooks are used that alternately roll the log further. The cant hook is mainly used in the sawmill or at the warehouse. The lumberjack prefers the lighter ring dog. [MOT] (1) FORBES 1961: 16.17; HUGGARD & OUWEN:...
Broad axe
The broad axe is used for shaping logs and heavy pieces of wood by hewing. It is also sometimes used to peel a tree. This axe weighs approximately 1.5-3.5 kg and is characterized by a wide blade (up to 40 cm) with one bevel. The stem is 25-40 cm long and is held with one or both hands. The trunk is first smeared (see chalk line) to indicate the shape to be obtained. If little wood has to be removed, the carpenter immediately proceeds to work with the broad axe; he stands next to the trunk and thus cuts in the direction of the fibers. If the sapwood is too thick, he chops notches in it with the felling axe (1) to about 0.5-1 cm from the line; the distance between the notches (90-180 cm) (2) depends on the type of wood and also on the piece (straight fibers or not). The wood between the notches is then cut away with the felling axe. The rough surface is cut evenly against the line with the broad axe. The broad axe is the iconic tool of the (ship) carpenter. The tool can be distinguished from the carpenter's axe....
When a bull is not ringed, the farmer can keep it under control with the help of a bullock-holder. He places the pliers on the septum in the nose and presses the arms closed. The bull must keep its head still so as not to be in pain. The jaws are wide and round. They end in two spheres so as not to hurt the septum. There is an eye on each end of the arm so that the farmer can tie a rope to it. There can also be a link through the eyes.Another model consists of two levers of the third type in which a ring or a spring slides over the arms to press or not close the jaws, sometimes a screw is also used for this.See also the bull leader. [MOT]
Description to be completed. See also the corner brace. [MOT]
Bread plane
The bread plane (1) is used to shave and crumble small pieces of hardened bread.Originally, this was done to thicken cooking liquid or broth with crumbled bread, the soupe (2). The tool was mainly spread in France in the nineteenth century in places where fresh bread could not be baked often or not all year round.See also the bread slicer. [MOT] (1) Proper name unknown. Derived from French 'rabot à pain'.
Butter knife
Knife (approx. 15-18 cm) with a spatula-shaped, non-cutting blade, which is pointed or rounded at the end. With the butter knife you take a lump of butter from the butter dish and put it on the bread. See also butter spoon. [MOT]
Butcher's bone saw
Bones of slaughtered animals are cut into pieces with a butcher's saw. It has an elongated - often replaceable - saw blade (approx. 25-35 cm long) that is stretched in an arc-shaped frame with a straight handle or a pistol butt. See also the two-handed meat cleaver. [MOT]
Butter spoon
Wooden spoon (approx. 20 cm) with a ribbed, concave blade. It is used to take butter from a larger butter block. Sometimes it is also used for kneading and working up the butter, but usually this is done with a butter paddle. See also butter knife. [MOT]
Cabbage corer
Drill resembling a small nave borer (approx. 20 cm long) that is used to drill the core out of a cabbage before cutting it into pieces. [MOT]
Carpenter's pincers
The carpenter's pincers have strongly curved jaws to pull out nails. Their gripping surface has also been reduced to a minimum so that the jaws can possibly clamp under the head of the nail and penetrate slightly into the nail to get a better grip. Once the pincers hold the nail, they are used as a lever to pull out the nail. Sometimes a piece of wood is placed under the jaw to protect the wood surface. Some models have a square opening between the jaws for loosening nuts. One of the arms sometimes ends in a screwdriver, a sphere - to protect the hand - or a crow bar. In the latter case, the arm may be bent outwards because of too much pressure and the forceps were bent. The pliers are also sometimes used to cut metal wire, but the jaw is actually not sharpened enough for this purpose. It is better to use these thongs. Their mouth is sharper and more flattened than that of the carpenter's pincers. [MOT]
Button hook
The button hook is a small (approx. 10 cm) iron hook - often with a (decorated) iron, wooden, bone or ivory handle - with which the ladies' boots used to be tied (1). There is also a model with two hooks of different sizes. Another model is foldable.Sometimes the button hook is fitted with a shoehorn at the other end.See also pocket knife. [MOT](1) The button hook was sometimes used as a hook for eviscerating poultry (PETITPRERE: 2131). See further the folding hunting knife.EMMET: 187 states that the button hook was used for gloves.
Carpenter's axe
This designation indicates a number of different axe shapes, which are mainly used by carpenters. However, these axes are also used by other craftsmen, eg the mason to make scaffolding. It is usually an axe of about 0.6-1.2 kg, with an eye, two bevels and a hammer; the track of the latter is sometimes split in order to pull out nails. The stem is approx. 30 cm long. This axe is used for all kinds of purposes during construction: to cut a notch, make it shorter, hammer a nail, etc. The tool can be distinguished from the broad axe. See also the woodman's axe. [MOT]
Carving knife
Large pieces of meat are pre-cut with a carving knife. It has a slightly flexible blade (approx. 25-30 cm long) with a sharp, sometimes curved point with which the meat can be cut loose from the bones. In the past, carving knives were quite wide so that the meat could also be served with them. Most carving knives have a 3/4 or full tongue. The handle can be made of all kinds of materials: plastic, wood, stag horn, stainless steel, silver or ivory. The stiffer knives serve to pre-cut beef, pork or lamb; slightly flexible knives are used for poultry. It is often used in conjunction with a carving fork. See also ham slicer. [MOT]
Champagne nippers
The stopper of a champagne bottle can easily be loosened with champagne nippers. The narrow jaws with fairly large teeth grip the head of the cork. Sometimes the opening is behind the rotating spindle and we find champagne scissors at the front to cut the muselet, i.e. the wire around the cork.Another model has 2 brackets about 4 cm above the jaws to hold the cork when it comes out.See also the champagne cutter.Can be distinguished from the wax tongs to break the wax of a sealed bottle. [MOT]
Carpet beater
Hand tool for beating carpets, which are then hung on a clothesline (1). It consists of a woven reed leaf (approx. 20 cm by 30 cm) and a straight reed stem (approx. 50 cm). Another model consists of a wooden handle (approx. 30 cm) to which a rubber loop (approx. 25 cm) is attached and another is made of pleated bamboo, which is tied together by means of iron wire. See also the clothes beater. [MOT] (1) There are also horsehair "pillow beaters" (DU CAJU: 240).
Carving fork
When you pre-cut a large piece of meat with a carving knife, you can hold that meat with a carving fork. It has fairly long (approx. 7-10 cm) - usually three - sturdy teeth and a handle made of plastic, wood, stag horn, stainless steel, silver or ivory. Between the blade and handle there is usually a bumper to protect the hand if the knife should slip; often there is also a folding stick so that the fork does not penetrate too deep into the meat. See also carving tongs. [MOT]
Cauterizing iron
After the tail of draft horses has been cut with a docking iron, the wound is burned with a cauterizing iron. To stop the bleeding, the heated iron is pressed against the wound with the ring-shaped end for 8-10 seconds so that it fits over the slight bulge of the tailbone. If necessary, this operation is repeated until no more blood escapes. [MOT]
Cheese cutter
See also the cheese knife and cheese cutting knife.
The chaquitaclla (1) (pronounced tcha-ki-tak-li-ja) is a typical agricultural implement in the Andes mountains of southern Peru and northern Bolivia. The men use them to work fallow soil by tilting the clods - as with the Spanish Laya, after which the women pow ​​the potato tubers by hand (2). It is not uncommon for five men to work side by side; then they tilt a whole bar in one go. The chaquitaclla evolved from a digging stick to a tool with a sharp metal tip, a curved or straight handle, and a footrest. It is about 1 to 1.5 meters long and has a diameter of about 6 cm. The footrest consists of two poles of approx. 20 cm long that are tied parallel to each other at a height of approx. 45 cm. The wooden handle is tied to the shaft with strips of llama or cow leather. When working on steep slopes, a lower-placed handle - close to the footrest - is more convenient for balancing. The stem fits into the socket of the blade, which is about 7-10 cm wide and 40 cm long. If no metal is available...
Chopping knife
Kitchen utensil for chopping vegetables. There is a wide variety of shapes. The cut can be rectangular or rounded; the handle can be attached to the top of the blade - horizontally like a crank or connected to the blade at one or both ends - but can also be in line with the blade. In the latter case, the knife resembles the meat cleaver, but it is lighter.The vegetable chopper is always used in combination with a chopping block or a wooden bowl or porringer.See also the mincing knife. [MOT]
Cigar cutter
The cigar cutter is a hand tool that is used to cut the tip of a cigar before lighting it. It can be small scissors (about 6-10 cm) with two crescent-shaped blades or one of which has a round cutout and the other a concave cut. Another model has a blade with a round cutout - where the tip of the cigar fits - and a straight cutting blade that can be moved along the cutout using the lever principle. There is also the option of making a V-shaped cutout at the mouth end of the cigar. Sometimes this last model is combined with a cigar box opener or it is part of a pocket knife. [MOT]
Stonemason's French drag
The French drag is used by the stonecutter for smoothing out soft stone types such as marl, after the work with the stone-dressing axe, the charring chisel or the claw chisel. There is a wide variety of models and sizes depending on the surface to be worked. The hand tool consists of a wooden block with handle, in which the sole contains a series of straight or serrated metal cutting blades, perpendicular to the direction of the piece of stone to be planed. You can find more technical information on the dutch version of this page. [MOT]
Claw hammer (carpenter)
The claw hammer is a hammer - very similar to the farrier's shoeing hammer - with square or round face, of 300-900 gr, with a split pin. The claw is used to pull out nails (1). To do this, the carpenter takes his hammer with the iron under his hand, places the nail in the tapered crack and pulls back the handle. Due to the force exerted on the joint, it is often reinforced by two springs. See also this hammer of the carpenter. [MOT] (1) The double claw - two claws one above the other - occurs only exceptionally (eg SLOANE: 99). It was probably used to pull out long nails.
Chopping block
Meat and vegetables can be chopped on a cutting board or a chopping block. The latter is a cross-sawn piece of tree trunk (approx. 30-60 cm diameter; approx. 13-50 cm thick) - often the hole in the tree - possibly with three legs underneath. Usually it is made of beech wood. [MOT] 
Cheese/butter/clay wire
See also the cheese wire with roller.
Cheese knife
See also the cheese cutting knife and the cheese cutter.
Cleaving iron, froe
The cleaving iron or froe is used to split laths and staves. When the trunk is sawn into pieces, the craftsman splits a piece into four or eight with a splitting wedge or with a splitting wedge with handle. Depending on the thickness of the triangular cross-section pieces obtained and the type of laths, these pieces are first divided into two or four with a straight froe or with a hollow froe. To do this, they are clamped in a wooden frame (1). The blade is placed on the cross-section and beaten with a wooden froe-maul. The stem is then pulled down so that the gap widens and the tool can be pushed into it. Then those pieces are split further with a straight froe that is usually less thick and sharper than the first. It is handled in the same way, but the craftsman usually does not use a hammer to drive the tool into the wood. When the lath gets too thick or too thin, he pulls or pushes the stem down or up to cut into the wood. The laths can be split quarter-hourly or flat, i.e. radially...
The hairdresser uses these clippers to thin or trim hair. The clippers combine the comb and the razor knife in one instrument. The handle is elongated (approx. 13 cm) and is made of wood, iron, aluminum or plastic. The razor blade is clamped in a holder consisting of two metal plates, at least one of which is comb-shaped. Handle and holder consist of a whole or are assembled. Sometimes the holder hinges open or is unscrewed so that a replaceable razor blade can be clamped in. In another model, the holder is square and completely made of plastic. In that case, two razor blades are clamped in the holder on either side. See also clippers for horses, dog dresser's knife and thinning scissors. [MOT]
Cleaving knife
The cleaving knife is an all-metal hand tool for splitting short standing logs. It is a rectangular iron (20-50 / 5-10 / 0.5-1.5 cm) of which one long side is sharp and the other is extended by a co-plane rod (approx. 10-15 cm) which serves as a handle. The craftsman, eg the clog maker or the cooper, places the tool on the cross-section of the piece to be split and hits it with a froe-maul. The splitting wedge is mainly used for splitting long horizontal pieces, unlike the cleaving knife and the splitting wedge with handle. [MOT]
Cigar box opener
The cigar box opener is a manual tool with which one can open a cigar box. It has a flat, rounded, blunt blade with a small notch along the side, and a straight handle. With the rounded end you cut the paper band around the lid of the box loose and with the notch you pry the nail loose. In some models there is also a hammer head present to hammer the nail back in. Sometimes the cigar box opener is combined with a cigar cutter. The same tool is used to open boxes with scoops (1). The cigar box opener can also be part of a pocket knife. [MOT] (1) Paul Duflos. Outillage pour le travail du bois. Tariff No. 5. 1920: 13 marteaux-couteaux pour primeurs.
Kitchen utensils with a heavy, usually rectangular blade used to chop meat into pieces. Blade and handle form one whole, or the blade is inserted into a wooden handle and takes up more than half of the total weight. In this way, the cleaver falls forward and down, as it were, making chopping easier. The weight (300 gr - 2.5 kg) of these meat cleavers varies depending on the work to be done with them. Heavy cleavers, for example, effortlessly cut through most joints and bones. See also the billhook for wood and the two-handed cleaver. [MOT]
Charging shovel
Rectangular iron shovel (approx. 30 cm long) with a wooden D-handle (approx. 70-80 cm). It is used by the stoker when filling the boiler of a heating installation or of a steam engine, and by the brickmaker when heating the oven. It has raised edges so that the coals do not fall out when shoveling. See also the coal scoop and coal shovel. [MOT]
Closer's hammer
Full metal shoemaker's tool (min. 13 cm long) with a swollen, cylindrical center piece; one end is circular, the other wedge-shaped. The middle part acts as a handle. The rapping hammer is used to smooth seams, by tapping one end and rubbing with the other, and to smooth wrinkles on the last. See also the seam rubber. [MOT]
Clothes brush
The clothes brush is a brush that can be used to brush dust, fluff, etc. from clothes. It has short (approx. 2 cm), strong hair that is flexible enough not to damage clothes when brushing. See also the clothes beater. [MOT]
Cleaver (two-handed)
To divide animals for slaughter into pieces, the butcher uses a heavy (approx. 2-3 kg) and large (approx. 70-100 cm) cleaver that must be handled with both hands. It is an enlarged version of the one-handed meat cleaver used by the butcher and in the kitchen. See also the butcher's bone saw. [MOT]
Clog maker's mallet
The clog maker's hammer is a heavy, round wooden hammer with a short handle. It is used to hit the clog maker's gouge and thus roughly cut out the interior of the clog. [MOT]
Cooper's handle-scraper
Primarily a painter's tool, the handle-scraper is sometimes used to scrape wood smooth, to clean the interior of a barrel, to finish pottery products, etc. It is usually a triangular metal plate (5-14 cm) with a metal rod in the middle of the surface that sticks into a wooden handle. One of the sides can be arcuate. The tool differs from the cooper's inshave drawing knife in that the direction of the blade and that of the machined part are perpendicular to each other. See also the putty scraper for glass and the foam scraper. [MOT]
Compass saw
The compass saw is used to cut curved lines and especially to cut a hole in the center of a shelf. It resembles the handsaw but is shorter (approx. 20-30 cm) and has a much narrower blade (approx. 1.5-2 cm) that tapers to a point and is fixed in an open pistol grip or a straight handle. There are now small compass saws with straight metal handle in which the blade slides, so that the artisan can have the latter protrude just as much as necessary. The joiner drills a hole in the shelf and inserts the end of the saw into it. Despite the lack of rigidity, this saw usually works when pushing. [MOT]
Club hammer
Heavy metal hammer (up to 15 kg) with long handle (up to approx. 80 cm) suitable for various purposes. This tool is used by many craftsmen, the quarry worker uses it to drive wedges into the rock. It can be distinguished from the mash hammer which is lighter and has a shorter handle. [MOT]
Cooper's hollowing drawing knife
Drawing knife of which the blade is less or more concave but does not form a semicircle. The hollowing drawing knife is used when a lot of wood has to be removed from relatively wide pieces and to work concave surfaces. See also the strip drawing knife. [MOT]
Coal scoop
Metal shovel with a flat or concave elongated blade (approx. 10-15 cm wide; approx. 20-25 cm long) with raised edges for scooping small amounts of coal into the stove. It can be made entirely of metal or have a metal blade attached to a wooden handle. It is often decorated and combined with the coal bin. See also coal scoop (brick maker) and charging shovel. [MOT]