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??? What are these question marks doing here? These represent tools which we know by a Dutch or French term, but for which we couldn't find a proper English term. Suggestions for a name are always welcome!

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Grape scissors
With grape scissors you can easily cut grapes from a bunch at the table. They are scissors with short (approx. 3-5 cm), narrow (approx. 5 mm) blades with a blunt tip and long (approx. 10 cm) arms. The tips are blunt so that the grapes are not damaged when cut. These scissors are often decorated with grape motifs.See also grape shears. [MOT]
Grape knife
A miniature pruning knife (approx. 15 cm) with a short blade (approx. 4-5 cm) with which grapes are harvested. Not infrequently, the end of the suture forms a ring where the little finger can be inserted. The knife is mainly used in the Bordelais area. [MOT]
In contrast to the hand cultivator, which is continuously pulled, the claw is pulled with jerks and the soil is loosened superficially. It is narrower (approx. 5-10 cm) and therefore especially suitable for narrow spaces in the rows and vegetables in the vegetable garden and for dense flower beds. The claw has 3 to 5 round and pointed teeth, of which the middle one protrudes in front of the other, and a wooden or plastic handle (approx. 20-140 cm). If the handle is long, the gardener stands upright; if the handle is short, then the work is bent or crouched. Another model has thick (approx. 0.5 cm) flat teeth - lying in one row - and is connected to the handle by means of a tang. It is distinguishable from an all-metal model that is used in hardware stores to pull nails out of a pile (1). There is also a model with 2 flat, wide (approx. 1 cm) teeth with a long (approx. 35 cm) tang that sticks into a wooden handle (approx. 15 cm). See also the weeding hoe, weeding...
Grater (kitchen)
Kitchen utensil for grating vegetables. It consists of a metal plate with rows of holes 'punched out'. The vegetables are sanded back and forth on this rough surface and finely grated. There are flat, rectangular, pyramid, semicircular, round, etc. graters. The grater can also be mounted on a tray in which the finely grated goods are collected. There may be several grating surfaces with smaller holes each time for finer grating. Often there is also a sharp groove in the grating surface that serves as a slicer. There are also composite kitchen utensils that, in addition to a grater, can also be used as a butter cutter, apple corer and vegetable peeler. To grate nutmeg, special graters are used (see nutmeg grater). In addition to the kitchen grater, vegetables can also be grated using a rotary grater. This allows even the smallest pieces to be rinsed up completely. See also potato grater and soap shaver. [MOT]
Hand wheel hoe
In crops growing in rows, the roots of weeds are cut with the hand wheel hoe; they are sometimes also used to break the crust so that a better air circulation is created and to counteract the capillary effect - and thus the drying out. The hand wheel hoe usually consists of two metal wheels (diam. Approx. 35 cm), each with a rod on the axle that keeps a metal plate, just behind the wheel, at the correct height. Both trapezoidal plates, connected by a bracket, are provided with 2-3 slots into which the oblique knives or hoes can be screwed to the desired width. The whole is pushed in front of you by means of two wooden arms (approx. 130 cm). There are also hand wheel hoes with one wheel with which you can hoe between two rows of plants, as opposed to the model with two wheels, which works on both sides of one row of plants. Nowadays there is a model with a rubber wheel (approx. Diam. 25-60 cm) where the hoes can be replaced by the blade of a hand ridger or hand cultivator (1). [MOT] (1)...
English translation in progress. You can find more technical information about the grindstone on this page in dutch. [MOT]
After the plants and grass from the ditch side have been mowed, the (small) ditches are manually cleared of sludge and dirt that impedes the water flow. The tool also serves to dredge ponds and other water features. The cleaning of the ditches is done at low tide, after a period of drought. One starts at the lowest point and against the current. More technical information on the dutch version of this tool page. See also the drag-net. [MOT]
Hand ratchet brace
This hand ratchet brace works on the same principle as the common brace but has a lever instead of a U-shaped bracket. This lever works according to a ratchet mechanism and can be moved with back and forth strokes. Where there is no room for the normal brace, this type can be used. See also the engineer's ratchet brace for metal. [MOT]
Ham slicer
With the ham slicer, pieces of ham are cut into very thin slices. It has a narrow (approx. 1.5-2 cm) and long (approx. 25-30 cm) very flexible blade with a rounded tip that cannot tear the thin slices. The cut can be smooth, wavy or serrated. See also the carving knife. [MOT]
Hand hook
Hand tool consisting of a square (approx. 1 cm), curved blade (approx. 6-8 cm long) in cross-section, ending in a pointed tip. It is attached at right angles to a relatively long (approx. 25-35 cm) wooden handle, which widens at the end. It is used for weeding between plants. See also the weeding fork and moss scraper. [MOT]
Agricultural and horticultural tool with a rectangular, semicircular, triangular or heart-shaped blade that lies diagonally opposite the wooden straight handle. The angle between blade and stem varies from 30 ° to 80 °. The blade can be covered with wood or iron. Usually the stem is half long (approx. 100-120 cm) and the hoe is used standing; however, there are also hoes with a shorter handle (approx. 50-60 cm) that require you to bend down or get on your knees (1). Dimensions and weight vary greatly and are adapted to the destination. For example, chopping is used to work the soil, to ridge potatoes (see also hand ridger), to harvest potatoes (see also potato lifting fork and potato harvester), plant trees, dig trenches, etc. Osiers and meadow farmers deepen and widen the trenches after each harvest (see this osier worker's tool) with a hoe. The handle (approx. 1 to 2 m) and blade are connected here by means of a D-shaped ring, a spring and a bolt. The cut is slightly curved. In the...
Humane twitch
The humane twitch are metal or wooden pliers consisting of two levers, which are connected to each other by means of a hinge, a ring or a rope. The two arms are straight or bent. In the former case, the joint ensures that there is space left when the tool is squeezed shut; so the lip is not squashed. The double arc in the second case serves the same purpose. A rack on one of the arms and a ring on the other make it possible to hold the tool in a certain position; a rope attached to an arm fulfills the same role. The humane twitch pinches the very sensitive upper lip (1) of a horse during treatment to divert the animal's attention and to induce a calming and sedative effect in case of disturbing (e.g. eye care) or painful procedures (cf. nose twitch) (2). [MOT] (1) According to '' Antique medical instruments '': 226 the tongue would be caught, but there seem to be no other traces of that method. (2) From an animal welfare point of view, the nose twitch seems to be preferred...
Hay fork / bundle fork
The hay fork is a fork with 2 to 3 - sometimes four - round or square, pointed, slightly curved, iron or steel tines (approx. 15-30 cm; spacing: approx. 7-20 cm), which have a straight wooden handle of varying length (approx. 100-300 cm). Sometimes it is also a monoxil fork-shaped branch (1). The farmer prefers a steel hay fork with two tines, to put the sheaves on the cart at harvest time or to stick it from the cart in the attic. The one with three teeth or the wooden bundle fork is often used to turn the hay (see also the hay rake). [MOT] (1) Eg. ROBERT: 8-20.
Hoof cleaning knife
Hand tool that the blacksmith uses to trim horses' hooves. It usually has a slightly curved blade that is bent at the end and that cuts its entire length. (Compare with the beam scribe, the timber scribe, the cooper's timber scribe and the clog maker's timber scribe).That blade sticks in a wooden handle that is often bent upwards. Excess horn is cut away with the knife. With the bent end - which also cuts - impurities on the inside of the hoof can be removed.There are models for both left and right-handed users (1).See also the horseman's folding knife. [MOT](1) Eg. Encyclopédie 1740-80, volume 13: s.v. Marechal ferrant.
Stone-dressing axe
Axe-shaped tool with one, usually two axe-shaped, straight cutting edges that are in the same plane as the handle (approx. 40-60 cm), for working natural stone. The cutting edge has an angle between 10 ° - for working soft stone types - and 40 ° for hard stone types. The stonemason uses this dressing axe mainly to remove the excess material from soft stones. It is also used to flatten natural stone after it has been roughly worked with the stone-dressing pick or the pointed chisel, as well as in finishing to give the stone a ribbed appearance (see also charring chisel). [MOT]
Ice pick
Awl (approx. 20 cm long) used to break large blocks of ice into pieces. The awl is held at an angle of 45 ° and the tip is pushed into the ice to break it. This is continued until flakes of the desired size are obtained. An ice pick can also consist of six shorter awls (about 3 cm) next to each other at some distance so that it has a fork-like shape (1). [MOT] (1) According to BRIDGE & TIBBETTS: 55, this instrument would be used to sculpt ice.
Horn file
The horn file (1) is used to work hard wood, horn, ivory or lead by friction. It is a metal straight or curved rod (15-25 / 0.5-3 / 0.5 cm) with deep parallel notches in the width, inserted into a short wooden handle of about 15 cm (2). The tool can be distinguished from the rasp for wood, which has points. [MOT] (1) Proper name unknown. Because the tool is widely used to process horn, we propose this name. (2) See a special model that resembles an iron in ROUBO: 3 pl. 328.
Handsaw for aerated concrete
Cellular, foam or aerated concrete is a concrete product with gas bubbles in it, making the material light, strong and easy to work with with the aerated concrete handsaw and with the stonemason's French drag. The aerated concrete handsaw has a thick (approx. 1.5 mm) tapered blade (approx. 50-70 cm). The large carbide (widia) teeth (30-40) are angled forward, so they saw when pushing the tool. See also the handsaw. [MOT]
Jack plane
The Jack plane is a planer with a square, 50-60 cm long block, with handle, without turning chisel. It is the first plane used to smooth a piece of wood. Since it is intended for rough work, the edge of its chisel is slightly rounded. Then the wood is processed with a jointer plane. [MOT]
Hay hook
Hand tool used by the farmer to move bales of straw. It is a hook-shaped iron with a ring as a handle. Distinguishable from the cotton hook which is lighter and usually shorter. [MOT]
Larding pin
To pull small strips of bacon through lean roast, you can use a larding needle or a larding pin. The latter has a long (approx. 30-40 cm) and narrow semi-cylindrical shaped blade with a sharp point, fixed in a wooden or plastic handle. A strip of bacon or some chilled fat is placed in the tray after the larding pin has been cut right through the meat. When you pull back the larding pin, it is turned over and the fat is left in the meat. The larding pin used on large cuts of meat would have a spring and lever to cut the strips and hold them in place (1). The trussing needle and larding pin are kept in a typical set of 2 needles and 12-15 awls of different sizes (2). [MOT] (1) "Nouveau Larousse ménager": 693. (2) CHANCRIN & FAIDEAU: 736.
Lace cutting knife
This hand tool resembles a rectangular stopping knife, but has a stiff blade ending at a 45 ° cutting angle. The leather worker, especially the shoemaker, uses the knife to split, plane, or bevel leather, depending on how he holds the knife. When splitting, the blade is held horizontal to cut into the thickness of the leather. When planing or cutting diagonally, the knife is held at an angle to the leather surface. As far as its purpose is concerned, the knife can be compared to a shoe knife.The tool can be distinguished from the skiver. [MOT]
Lathing hatchet
The lathing hatchet is a light hatchet - distinguishable from the roofer's hammer - of approx. 750 g with eye and with straight, relatively thin handle (approx. 30 cm), the iron of which, attached by one or two metal supports, ends in a square hammer opposite the blade. The top side of the blade is usually straight. In the underside one (sometimes two) notches is often forged to pull out nails. The cut is straight. Sometimes the whole tool, including the handle, is made of metal; the end of the stem is then placed in leather discs or in a wooden handle. However, these shapes seem to be rare in our regions. [MOT]
Jointer plane
The jointer plane is a plane up to one meter long with a turning chisel, a handle and sometimes a horn. It serves to plan perfectly smooth long pieces already worked with the jack plane. Sometimes one or two cross poles are attached on or in the block in order to be able to work in pairs: one craftsman pushes, another pulls. Sometimes a rope is tied to the front crossbar. Because this plane has to do fine work, the angle of the chisel is quite large and the space for the cut is small. The latter is completely straight, only the corners are rounded so as not to leave any traces. [MOT]
Knife (square paving-tile maker)
With this knife, the tile maker cuts off the excess clay around the tile mould.The hand tool consists of a thin rectangular trapezoidal iron blade with a cylindrical wooden handle at the top of the short side. The cut is always longer than the mould.This knife is not used for cutting, but is pushed diagonally forward and down along the side of the tile mould. [EMABB]
Joiner's mallet
Wooden, rectangular hammer with short handle, usually made of beech or vinegar. Sometimes the head may be slightly bowed. The carpenter uses this hammer for various hammering or chiselling work, to close mortise and tenon joints, etc.See also the joiner's hammer. [MOT]
Key for safety fuse type DIAZED
More technical information on our dutch pages. See also these safety fuse pliers. [MOT]
Lace-tag fitter
See also the aglet pliers. [MOT]
"Machete" is a general term for a hand tool that is used daily in Latin and South America, Central Africa and Southeast Asia, including as a billhook. The tool is indispensable on the cocoa, coffee and sugarcane plantations, on the corn fields, in the hemp or sisal cultivation (1), but it is also an all-round tool par excellence. After all, with the machete you can also mow grass (2), chop cassava stems and peel cassava tubers, harvest bamboo, fell thin trees, cut your way in the jungle or in thorny vegetation, cut down coconuts, skin killed animals, cut meat and fish, dig tubers out of the ground, peel trees as with the strip drawing knife (3), etc.; it is also used as a weapon (4).The machete has a long (25 to 75 cm) metal blade (5). The back is straight or slightly concave, the cut is straight or rounded towards the tip (6). The blade can be 3 to 10 cm wide and cuts on one, exceptionally on both sides. The handle is made of wood, leather, rubber or plastic. Sometimes there is a hole in the end of the handle...
Lawn aerator (roller)
A lawn that is frequently used remains a beautiful green if it is cultivated with a lawn aerator. By preventing compaction of the soil, enough air, water and fertilizers are admitted to the roots. There are various means of aerating the lawn. One model of lawn aerator consists of two wheels that are connected to each other by 6 rods (approx. 35 cm), fitted with iron pins (approx. 8 cm; diam. 0.6 cm), and a bracket with protective cover and stem (approx. 100 cm). When the implement is pushed over the lawn, the pins - every 5-10 cm - end up in the ground at an angle of about 30 ° and are a suspension system put back in place. Another model is simply a spiked wooden roll that is a bracket is attached to a wooden shaft (1). For a small lawn you can also use aerator shoes. It is even more labor-intensive if you use a lawn aerator (spike). The tool - resembling a dibble - is provided with 2 to 4 conical or hollow cylindrical teeth (length approx. 5-10 cm; diam. Approx. 1 cm), which...
Mason's trowel
Hand tool for mixing, shoveling and spreading mortar over stones, walls, floors, ceilings, etc. It is also used to chop off stones and to collect the falling mortar during grouting. It consists of a rounded or pointed metal blade attached to a short straight handle with a bent stem. The blade is usually quite large (approx. 16-19 cm / 10-15 cm), in contrast to the blade of the plasterer's trowel. [MOT]
Lime and lemon squeezers
This hand tool is used to squeeze half slices or wedges of lemon or lime. Especially with tea, these tongs are offered together with the lemon slice. The disc is placed between the jaws of the forceps and the arms are pressed closed. The juice flows into the cup through the drain. Usually these pliers are made of metal. Like the lemon reamer, it serves to obtain only a few drops of juice. See also this lemon squeezer. [MOT]
Marking hammer (lumberman)
Lumberman's hammer bearing the stamp of the owner of the forest or of the timber merchant, serving to mark felled trees on the cross-section. The hammer may have a stamp on one or both sides, or there may be a metal wheel on the handle bearing several letters or numbers so that a combination can be stamped. The stamp hammer can be distinguished from the marking adze, as it has no axe. See also the marking hammer of a tanner and the striking punch. [MOT]
Mane comb
A mane comb is a short comb with long thick teeth (approx. 2 - 3.5 cm long, 1 mm thick) made of horn, bronze, copper or aluminum that removes dust and straw from the mane of a horse; it is not recommended to use this tool on the tail as it would rip out the hair (1). A special model is mounted on a short perpendicular handle (2). See also the currycomb which is sometimes combined. [MOT] (1) BENOIST-GIRONIERE: 114. (2) Nouveau Larousse Illustré: s.v. peigne.
Marking hammer (tanner)
Wooden hammer with a metal plate on the track, on which a pattern of small nails is attached; those nails can form letters or a figure. The tanner marks the skins with the stamp hammer: when beating the nails, they make holes in the animal skin. See also the marking hammer of a lumberman. [MOT]
Soup, sauce, batter and the like are stirred and scooped with a ladle. It has a bowl-shaped metal blade on a straight long handle that often ends in a hook or eye. Sometimes the ladle has a wooden handle. The handle is long to reach the bottom of a deep pan. The size varies (approx. 8-16 cm diameter; approx. 25-63 cm long).To be distinguished from the lead spoon. [MOT]
Mash hammer
Steel hammer (approx. 1-2 kg) with two square, flat tracks, usually chamfered at the corners, and a short (approx. 20 cm) handle. The bricklayer uses the mash hammer for demolition work. In doing so, he hits the pinch bar with the hammer. Distinguished from the club hammer which is heavier and has a longer handle. [MOT
Linnen smoother
Glass tool that closely resembles a small grindstone for pigment or a stamper, used to smooth linnen and, among other things, embroidery; the work surface is convex or has rounded corners. Just like the ironing wood, you do not heat the linnen smoother. [MOT]
Melting ladle
A melting ladle is a small metal or porcelain fireproof spoon (approx. 15 cm long) with a pouring spout, which jewelers like the goldsmith or silversmith use to melt wax. The wax makes a positive model that - once solidified - will be used to make a negative cast; the again positive casting in this mold will show the original model in every detail. See also the melting pot. [MOT]
Mortise chisel
The mortise chisel is a wood chisel with one bevel and a neck. Its iron is thicker than it is wide and usually tapers a bit at the wooden handle so that it does not get stuck. There are different widths, about 0.1 to 2 cm. The carpenter uses the chisel to cut out pinholes. The narrowest chisel (1-3 mm) makes it possible to dig a groove or very narrow holes, for example for a hinge (to be inserted). He is hit with the hammer. The turner also uses a chisel, but without a neck, to make grooves. See also the hinge chisel. [MOT]
Meat tenderizer
To tenderize meat, one can use a meat pounder or a meat tenderizer. The latter is a wooden hammer - porcelain or aluminum is sometimes used - with a cylindrical or rectangular head with solid, pyramid-shaped buttons on both sides. There are often larger buttons on one side than on the other; for thick and thin cuts of meat respectively. These buttons can be cut from the wooden head, but this can also be a stainless steel plate with buttons attached to the face. The head of the meat mallet can also have an axe, ice pick (1) or steak greith (2) on one side. Another model has a handle on top instead of a hammer handle. [MOT] (1) See ''The Stanley Catalog Collection 1855-1898'': 64, 241. (2) CAMPBELL: 87.
Mud scuppit
Usually wooden (approx. 40-60 cm x 15-20 cm), sometimes iron (approx. 25x35 cm) shovel (1) with raised edges and T-handle (approx. 65 cm) and usually a leather patch on top of the (wooden) blade. Sometimes a second handle is provided at the bottom of the handle (2). The wooden shovel is usually monoxile (except for the T-handle). The bosom shovel is used to scoop water or dredge from a ditch or liquid manure from a barge (3), also, by the brick and tile baker, to pour water over the clay during the preparation of that raw material. See also drag net, bleacher's shovel and sand shovel (brickmaker). [MOT] (1) SIRAG: 50. (2) Larousse Agricole: 1.523. (3) V.A.W.P.: 1.433.
Meat pounder
Kitchen utensil used to finely and tenderly beat fairly tough meat. It can be made entirely of wood and then resembles the laundry beater and the cork driver. It can also be metal; this heavier model (approx. 700-1200 gr) has a square blade that is flat at the bottom and has two sharp edges for trimming the meat after crushing. It can be made entirely of metal or stick in a wooden handle. See also the meat tenderizer and steak greith. [MOT]
Melting pot
A melting pot or crucible is a container in which metal is melted for soldering or casting. To take it out of the fire, you use crucible tongs. In finer professions with small amounts of metal, such as the goldsmith and prosthetist, it is a small metal fireproof bowl (approx. 4-7 cm diameter) with or without legs, possibly with a handle and a pouring spout. Jewelers use a melting ladle to melt wax. In metal foundries, larger models of crucibles with a handle up to 1.5 meters or models without a handle are used, which are placed in a large foundry ladle and held by two people. [MOT]
Moss scraper
Hand tool with a flat and slightly L-shaped blade (approx. 7 cm by 7 cm) with a pointed tip, which has a fold on the back and front, and which is fixed in a wooden or plastic handle. It is used in the garden to remove dirt and weeds between tiles and stones (see also this tool); it can be used by pulling and pushing. With the back of the blade you can also scrape off soil from shovels or spades. See also this hand hook. [MOT]
Miner's saw
Although the miner's axe is mainly used for sheeting the mine galleries, a saw is sometimes used for this. It is a folding saw with a rigid, rounded blade (approx. 35-45 / 4-5 cm). This blade is attached to a straight handle of the same length by means of a spindle. The teeth enter the groove of the handle for transport. Sometimes, however, the blade is fixed. The handle is then shorter and the saw is carried in a wooden tube. [MOT]
Myoma drawer
The myoma drawer is a manual tool consisting of a sturdy metal spiral and an annular or straight handle, with which the surgeon removes a myoma, i.e. a benign tumor consisting of smooth muscle tissue. To be distinguished from the corkscrew. [MOT]
Metal, wooden, bone, ivory or plastic knife (approx. 20-25 cm long), usually in one piece, with a flat and narrow (approx. 0.5-1 cm) blade that tapers towards the end. The edge is not sharp and the point is relatively blunt. With a paperknife you can easily cut open envelopes and books; it is inserted respectively into the fold of the cover or between two uncut leaves of a book and then cut open along the fold. Sometimes the letter opener is equipped with a pocket knife at the other end. Another paperknife model has a razor-sharp blade (approx. 3 cm) in a rectangular plastic handle, which is no thicker than 4 mm. This type of paperknife is not to be confused with the folder. [MOT]
Paint can opener
The house painter and do-it-yourselfer use a pot opener to lift the lid of the hermetically sealed paint cans to allow air to enter and open the can. The paint pot opener is a flat metal rod (approx. 10-15 cm) with the end (approx. 1 cm) folded back and thinned for easier access under the lid. The rod then serves as a lever of the first kind. If the end is not folded over, it will be in the shape of a flat screwdriver and / or hook. Slightly shorter models are provided with a ring to put more pressure, sometimes they are combined with a can pierce or a bottleopener. [MOT]
Pancake tongs
Rare plastic U-shaped pliers (approx. 10 cm long) that can be squeezed shut. For example, a pancake can be grasped this way to be eaten. This tool can be distinguished from the strawberry huller and print tongs of a photographer. [MOT]