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??? What are these question marks doing here? These represent tools which we know by a Dutch or French term, but for which we couldn't find a proper English term. Suggestions for a name are always welcome!

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Trowel with an elongated (approx. 16-20 cm), flat and narrow (approx. 2.5-4 cm) blade that is rounded or pointed and attached to a handle with a bent joint. It is used by the bricklayer or tile roofer to apply mortar between roof tiles. The plasterer uses it in places where it is difficult to reach with other tools, behind heating pipes, etc. To be distinguished from the tongue trowel of the bricklayer and not to be confused with the beekeeper's uncapping knife. [MOT]
Tongue trowel
Hand tool with a rounded, elongated (approx. 13-20 cm) blade that protrudes into an upwardly curved handle. The tool is used by the bricklayer and plasterer. Can be distinguished from this trowel, but has a wider blade (approx. 4-7 cm). [MOT]
Carving tongs
The carving tongs make it possible to clamp a piece of roast, so that it can be cut easily. The jaws are quite large, wide and arched. They consist of bars that are regularly spaced from each other. You can cut between the bars with a knife to obtain discs of the same thickness.  See also the carving fork and carving knife. [MOT]
Champagne scissors
The wire around the cork of a champagne bottle is cut with champagne scissors. The jaws are very short, since the wire is against the bottle and there is not much play between the wire and the bottle. The champagne scissors are sometimes part of the champagne nippers. [MOT]
Print tongs
Negatives and prints of photos can be easily grasped with these print tongs. It consists of a U-shape that is squeezed shut. Sometimes both arms are also linked halfway by a hinge and a spring keeps the tool open. It is very similar to pancake tongs. [MOT]
The zinc cutter is a knife that the galvanizer and roof tiler use to cut sheet zinc. It consists of a steel shaft that is hook-shaped with a cutting surface at the end. It can be fixed in a wooden handle or made entirely of metal. The knife can also be adjustable. In that case it is elongated with an oblique cutting surface on the short side. It is screwed into a metal holder that sticks into a handle. See also this tile cutter. [MOT]
Spatter sieve
The spatter sieve is a tool for spattering paint with a stencil brush. For example, "spat a leaf, i.e. place a plant leaf on a paper and then sprinkle watercolor on it through a metal mesh (spatter sieve); afterwards, the shape of the leaf has remained white and the paper around it is finely speckled." (1) It consists of a small (approx. 13 by 8 cm) metal sieve (mesh width approx. 1 mm) with a short (approx. 5 cm) metal wire handle. [MOT] (1) Dictionnary V.D. (Van Dale)
Stencil brush
Paint brush used in stencil painting to apply the paint in the cut-out areas of the stencil consisting of letters, figures or decorations. You can also spat paint with it, in combination with a spatter sieve. The stencil brush consists of a round and straight-cut brush of firmly short (approx. 2 cm) white pig bristles (width approx. 0.4 - 3.7 cm), partly surrounded by a metal sleeve in which, on the other side, a short (approx. 6 cm) wooden handle sticks. [MOT]
Striking wrench
Heavy-duty wrench (approx. 17-50 cm), respectively a ring- and open-end spanner, made of shock-resistant spring forged steel or chrome vanadium and with a widened end, used for firmly tightening and loosening nuts on heavy machines. This is done by hitting the side of the end with a club hammer or pneumatic hammer. [MOT]
Pestle for food grinder
Wooden pestle used to press food into the funnel of a grinder (e.g. meat grinder, rotary grater, etc.). The pestle always takes the shape of the funnel of the mill it belongs to. There are cylindrical, conical and parallelepiped-shaped pistils. The cone-shaped pestle is distinguishable from the cone-shaped pestle of the potato mash strainer which is smaller and the mould for cardboard boxes. [MOT]
Masonry shovel
Slightly concave shovel with straight cut, made of sheet steel. Usually there is no handle on the stem, but a T-handle also occurs. The sand shovel serves to move sand, gravel, crushed stone, etc. The archaeologist uses the sand shovel to scrape off very thin layers of soil to make the traces visible. See also the shovel. [MOT]
Key for roller skates
Small box spanner combined with two ring spanners or with a screwdriver, with which the roller skater adjusts his skates to his shoes (1). Another model consists of a small (approx. 12 cm) thin double ring spanner. [MOT] (1) These are skates that are attached to the shoes by means of straps.
Broad, slightly concave, straight or pointed shovel. It is made of sheet steel. Typically the short handle ends in a D handle. The ballast shovel serves to move sand, gravel, chippings, coal (see charging shovel) and the like. See also the masonry shovel. [MOT]
Flower shears
With these flower scissors you can cut and hold the stem of a flower. More information on the dutch version of this page. [MOT]
Scythe key
Square exagonal key that loosens or tightens the ring that attaches a scythe blade to the stem. A string can be threaded through the hole on the end of the lever. The scythe key comes in a single size. [MOT]
Ham boner
The ham boner is a gouge to remove the thighbone or buttock of a ham or leg of lamb without cutting open or damaging the meat (muscle tissue). It is a sturdy gouge with a long (approx. 15-20 cm) and fairly wide (approx. 2-3 cm) blade that has a bevel on the outside, attached in a wooden or plastic handle. The concave shape of the blade slides easily on the bone and the bevel on the outside ensures that the meat comes off without much effort and is damaged as little as possible. The working part is sometimes slightly bent in length. See also the boning knife. [MOT]
Gigli saw
Saw consisting of a thin, twisted steel wire (approx. 35-75 cm long) to which a handle is hooked on both ends. It is used by the surgeon to cut bones and can be distinguished from the wire saw used by the lumberman. The steel wire can also be stretched in an arc-shaped frame with a T or D handle. See also the amputating saw. [MOT]
Potatoes can be harvested with a garden spade, a hoe, a potato lifting fork or a potato harvester. The latter has three, sometimes four, wide (approx. 2-3 cm) and flat teeth with pointed ends (approx. 25-30 cm long), which are slightly attached to a wooden handle (approx. 100-130 cm) ). [MOT]
Pan scrubber
With a pan scrubber you can clean dirty pans or pots while washing. It consists of a scouring pad made of galvanized iron mesh or steel wool, which may or may not be attached to a plastic handle.See also the sink brush for dishwashing. [MOT]
Thatching knife
This thatcher's knife is a large knife (approx. 50 cm long) with a rounded edge that resembles the fish chopping knife but with a firmer blade. It is used by the roofer to trim reed or straw and he can occasionally use it to cut the twine of the reed bundles or the ribbon straw of the sheaves, similar to the sheaf-knife. [MOT]
Cutting board
Vegetables are finely chopped on a chopping board with a chopping knife. It consists of a rectangular or trapezoidal shelf with three raised edges, so that the cut food stays in place. In the modern kitchen, this chopping board has often been replaced by a chopping board without raised edges. See also chopping block. [MOT]
Wooden tool to scoop grain. See also the grain shovel.
Slaugther hammer
Heavy hammer to stun cattle to be slaughtered, and then kill them with the neck cut. The stunning can be done with a slaughter mask, a shooting device or this slaugther hammer (1). It can be a wooden hammer (approx. 5-6 kg) with a long handle (see sledgehammer). The working part can also be made of metal and resemble a stone hammer. Or a hammer with a metal head that has a rod-shaped end on one side, which can be used to punch through the skull to crush the brain. Another model consists of a hollowed-out pin and a hook at the other end. The hook would serve to pull the pin out of the skull when it gets stuck. See also the punch. [MOT] (1) Banned since 1920 (by Royal Decree of 5 June) in the Netherlands. In France since 1964.
Castration tongs
The castration tongs (1) are relatively heavy (approx. 2-5 kg) tongs with long arms (approx. 30 cm) and a wide beak (approx. 8 cm) with strongly curved jaws, which are used to castrate bulls. If necessary, there is a U-shaped bracket on the underside of one of the arms that can be placed on the knee as support. The jaws of the forceps are placed successively behind both testicles - at the level of the spermatic cord - and the forceps are squeezed closed for about thirty seconds. After a few days, the scrotum begins to shrivel; the testicles shrink and die. See also the emasculator scissors. [MOT] (1) See BERTHELON.
Furrier's nail comb
Steel furrier comb with coarse teeth (approx. 1 cm long; approx. 2 mm wide) and a wooden handle. The comb is used to loosen the piece of skin that has been nailed to a wooden board to dry. Such a fur nail fits just between the teeth of the comb, so that the nail can be lifted out of the board. The point of the comb is kept flat on the board and with the right hand one makes an upward movement along the nails. The fur is prevented from being stretched by holding back the skin with the left hand when removing the nail. See also the furrier's comb and seal comb. [MOT]
Upholsterer's hammer
The upholsterer's hammer is a relatively light (approx. 200-400 g) hammer - distinguishable from the glazier's hammer - with a long (approx. 10-15 cm), narrow (approx. 1-1.5 cm) head attached to a wooden stem. The hammer head has one round face and a flat pin at the other end, often with a claw. The upholsterer uses the hammer to hammer in and remove tacks. Sometimes the head is magnetized; this way the nails are held in place, which makes work easier as furniture upholstery often involves nailing in awkward corners. [MOT]
When one wants to cut the top layer of the soil, one usually uses a hoe. In hard or stony soil, this two-pronged tool is used, which consists of two heavy (approx. 20 cm by 2 cm), sharp teeth that are attached at right angles or at an angle to a straight handle. See also the flat pick. [MOT]
Billiard table iron
To smooth a billiard cloth, one can use a billiard table iron. This is a full metal iron with a thick (approx. 3-4 cm) rectangular (approx. 25 by 10 cm) blade and a U-handle. It resembles the solid metal iron that people used to use at home, but it is much heavier (approx. 7-8 kg). The carpenter sometimes used a billiard iron as a glue iron. [MOT]
Heavy (approx. 1,400-2 kg), trapezoidal forged hammer with flat or slightly convex face and short (approx. 20-25 cm) handle. The farrier usually forges horseshoes with a forging hammer. In contrast, in some areas of France, a specific hammer, the farrier hammer, is used. [MOT]
This weeding finger cot is a metal sleeve (approx. 10 cm long) with a rounded plate at the bottom, which can be slid over the index finger and with which weeds and moss can be removed. It is especially suitable for working between tiles and stones or when there is little space between the plants. See also the gardener's moss scraper. [MOT]
This lead reamer is a drill (approx. 10-15 cm long) with a half cone blade and a T-handle and resembles a very small hub reamer. The plumber uses this hand tool to enlarge holes in lead pipes or to remove burrs and uneven edges. [MOT]
This bit consists of a metal pipe (diameter approx. 0.5-1 cm) - sharp on one end and with a handle or a crank on the other end - to cut circles, hearts, etc. as decoration on the clogs. It is pushed onto the clog, never beaten like the leatherworker's punch. [MOT]
Emasculator (for piglet)
Piglets are usually neutered in their first three weeks of life. This is done in the following way: After an incision has been made in the scrotum with a scalpel - so that the testes are free to hang - the spermatic cord is twisted until it breaks. In young piglets this is done with the help of a few clamping pliers or even by hand. On piglets of several months old, the spermatic cord is already relatively large and castration is done with an emasculator (1). One jaw is rectangular (approx. 5 cm by 1 cm) with an elongated cutout that has grooves on one side and a sharp cut on the other, the other jaw has a concave cut. The jaws can be screwed on using a clamping screw. After the incision, the spermatic cord is caught with the jaws, which are squeezed tightly and tightened with the clamping screw; The forceps are turned a few times until the spermatic cord breaks and then they are squeezed completely closed so that the testicle is cut off. See also castration tongs. [MOT] (1) See BERTHELON.
Asparagus cutter
White asparagus (Asparagus Officinalis Liliaceae, variety Ultilis) are harvested with an asparagus gouge or an asparagus cutter (approx. 60-70 cm long). The latter has a flat leaf that extends towards the end, a leaf with a bent - possibly toothed - tip or a semicircular leaf (approx. 10-12 cm long), which is attached with a long (approx. 40 cm) tang in a wooden handle; the point is sometimes knotted. Asparagus is grown on high beds and is harvested just before the foliage comes to the surface, as when the head is exposed to light it quickly turns blue or green. With an asparagus gouge or knife it is possible to cut the stem close to the rhizome, without damaging these or not yet fully grown neighboring stems. See also the weed digger. [MOT]
Amputating saw
Fine saw made of steel, chromed steel or stainless steel, used by the surgeon to cut off or amputate a part of the body. In one model handle and blade consist of one whole. Then the straight saw blade is about 12 cm long and gradually tapers to a pointed end. This amputating saw has a double saw-shaped cut with very fine, sharp tips. Another model amputating saw has a loose, replaceable saw blade about 10 to 33 cm long that is stretched in a metal arc and equipped with a straight handle or a pistol butt. Finally, there is also an amputating saw in the form of a handsaw with a blade approx. 22 to 33 cm long and 4 to 10 cm wide. The blade, which is pointed or rounded, has teeth along its entire length on one side. The amputating saw cuts through the bone and is used together with the amputating knife. See also the Gigli saw. [MOT]
Amputating knife
The amputating knife is a large straight knife with a narrow elongated blade (17 to 23 cm long) that cuts on one or both sides. The width of the blade varies between 2 and 3 cm. Today, the one-piece amputating knife uses chromed steel or stainless steel. Before the 19th century the handle was often made of ebony or ivory and the blade made of steel. The cutting blade usually ends in a sharp dagger point, i.e. a point in the longitudinal axis of the blade, or in a rounded cutting end. The surgeon uses this knife to amputate part or all of limbs. The knife easily cuts through the skin, muscles and tendons. The amputating knife is usually used in conjunction with the amputating saw. [MOT]
Asparagus gouge
White asparagus can be harvested with an asparagus cutter or an asparagus gouge. The latter has a gouge-shaped (approx. 3 cm wide; approx. 10-15 cm long) blade that is attached to a wooden handle with a long (approx. 20 cm) tang. White asparagus is grown on high beds and harvested just before the foliage comes to the surface, because when the head is exposed to light, it quickly turns blue or green. With an asparagus gouge or knife it is possible to cut the stem as close to the rhizome as possible, without damaging these or not yet fully grown, neighboring stems. [MOT]
Round bucket that widens upwards (diam. Approx. 20-30 cm) made of wood, (galvanized) iron or plastic, attached to a long (approx. 200 cm) wooden handle. This tool is used to draw water, also manure from the cesspool. To be distinguished from the liquid manure scoop used to scoop out of the bear tub. [MOT]
Aerator shoe
You can aerate a small lawn while walking by using these aerator shoes. It consists of iron or plastic soles under which iron nails (approx. 5 cm) are attached. You attach the soles under your shoes. Other means to aerate the lawn are a spike or a lawn aerator (roller). [MOT]
Apple grater
Glass or ceramic oblong (approx. 20 cm by 10 cm) dish with studs in the shape of four-sided pyramids at the bottom. You can grate an apple on it to make fruit porridge. You can also use an ordinary kitchen grater. [MOT]
Hand tool for punching holes in wood (1). It is a round or square, sometimes triangular metal tip of approx. 5-20 cm, which sticks into a wooden or plastic handle of approx. 10-15 cm. The Japanese awl (Japanese: tatsupu horuda) is cone-shaped and resembles the marlingspike. It is about 14 cm long and about 2.5 cm thick and has a wooden handle. In theory, the awl is not struck, except by hand. It is only used to make small and shallow holes, eg for screws. Not infrequently it replaces the scribing point. The basketmaker uses a similar awl, but with a blunt point (see basketmaker's awl). [MOT] (1) To punch holes in leather, the leatherworker uses a shoemaker's awl.
Beam scribe
The beam scribe (1) is a manual tool for marking a beam by cutting a groove in it. It consists of a thin metal blade (about 3 / 10-15 cm) bent at right angles at one end, the angle of which cuts. It is often combined with a saw-setting iron; usually this iron is on the opposite end, but sometimes the notches are cut into the blade itself (2); exceptionally the saw-setting iron is positioned between a double scribe (3).The carpenter uses the beam scribe to indicate the location and nature of the operation (sawing, mortising, etc.), sometimes also to number the beams.To be distinguished from the timber scribe, from the clog maker's timber scribe, from the saddler's racer and from the farrier's hoof cleaning knife.See also the scribing point. [MOT](1) WEYNS 1967-68.(2) Eg. LOMBARD & MASVIEL: 117.(3) BISTON-BOUTEREAU-HANUS: 249.
Barking shovel
The barking shovel serves to cut off some strips of bark and the twigs of felled conifers.   The tree is on the ground, the lumberman puts the cut on the trunk, on the thick side, takes the handle or the globe in his right hand, the shaft in his left and pushes the tool forward. The sphere makes the tool heavier and provides a better grip. The shaft is about one meter long. The barking shovel can be distinguished from the large barking iron and the bill hook. The first has a blunt and much less broad blade. Its handling is different: the barking shovel slides along the trunk, the barking iron is pushed sideways between wood and bark. The bill hook has a shorter and less broad blade on a much longer shaft. [MOT]
Beet topper
The leaves and heads of the sugar beet are cut off with the beet topper (1). It can be a large knife with a convex curved blade and a straight handle, such as a bread knife or a piece of the blade of a scythe with the point broken off (2). In another model, the blade is trapezoidal and the edge is straight. The beet topping hoe or the mechanical beet-cutter is also used for the same purpose. [MOT] (1) According to V.A.W.P.: 1.360, there are also tools in the form of a vegetable chopping knife for that purpose. (2) Eg. JEWELL: 15.
Ball cutter
Kitchen utensil with a metal hemisphere (approx. 0.5-3 cm) on one or both ends of a straight handle. With the ball cutter you can turn balls from potatoes, melon, root vegetables, butter, apples and cheese and remove cores from half apples or pears. Often it is combined with other kitchen utensils such as a butter cutter (1). It can be distinguished from the ice cream scoop and from the comedo extractor. See also the bottleopener. [MOT] (1) Eg. BRIDGE & TIBBETTS: 43.
Bale tie cutter
Hand tool to cut the tensioned twine bands that bind the pressed straw or hay bale by lightly touching it and pulling the tool towards you. The bale tie cutter consists of a triangular blade - often a cutter bar tooth - that sticks into a wooden handle. For the same purpose, other knives, foldable or not, such as the pruning knife, are used. See also the sheaf-knife. [MOT]
Bell drill
This is a gimlet with approx. 40 cm long bit to drill through door frames when an electrical wire has to be inserted. It is useful in relatively light materials such as plaster and wood for door frames, ceilings, walls and floors. Especially in the period of electrification, this drill was widely distributed, for the installation in existing buildings of a telephone, a doorbell or for internal calls for staff or visitors. [MOT]
Bean hook
A bean hook can be used to remove heavy weeds, shrubs, etc. The tool is very similar to the billhook with hook-shaped blade, but is longer (approx. 50 cm) and narrower (approx. 3 cm). Sometimes a small axe is forged on the back of the blade. [MOT]
Basket maker's rapping iron
For more technical information on this hand tool of a basket maker, you can visit the dutch version of this page. See also the commander of a basket maker. [MOT]
Beet lifting tongs
The farmer lifts the beets with a beet lifting fork or beet lifting spade. However, when the soil is very moist, these hand tools are of little use. One then uses these beet lifting tongs, which one holds with both hands. [MOT]